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Title: A Supercritical CO{sub 2} Gas Turbine Power Cycle for Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors

Abstract

Although proposed more than 35 years ago, the use of supercritical CO{sub 2} as the working fluid in a closed circuit Brayton cycle has so far not been implemented in practice. Industrial experience in several other relevant applications has improved prospects, and its good efficiency at modest temperatures (e.g., {approx}45% at 550 deg. C) make this cycle attractive for a variety of advanced nuclear reactor concepts. The version described here is for a gas-cooled, modular fast reactor. In the proposed gas-cooled fast breeder reactor design of present interest, CO{sub 2} is also especially attractive because it allows the use of metal fuel and core structures. The principal advantage of a supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is its reduced compression work compared to an ideal gas such as helium: about 15% of gross power turbine output vs. 40% or so. This also permits the simplification of use of a single compressor stage without inter-cooling. The requisite high pressure ({approx}20 MPa) also has the benefit of more compact heat exchangers and turbines. Finally, CO{sub 2} requires significantly fewer turbine stages than He, its principal competitor for nuclear gas turbine service. One disadvantage of CO{sub 2} in a direct cycle application is themore » production of N-16, which will require turbine plant shielding (albeit much less than in a BWR). The cycle efficiency is also very sensitive to recuperator effectiveness and compressor inlet temperature. It was found necessary to split the recuperator into separate high-and low-temperature components, and to employ intermediate re-compression, to avoid having a pinch-point in the cold end of the recuperator. Over the past several decades developments have taken place that make the acceptance of supercritical CO{sub 2} systems more likely: supercritical CO{sub 2} pipelines are in use in the western US in oil-recovery operations; 14 advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR) are employed in the UK at CO{sub 2} temperatures up to 650; and utilities now have experience with Rankine cycle power plants at pressures as high as 25 MPa. Furthermore, CO{sub 2} is the subject of R and D as the working fluid in schemes to sequester CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and for refrigeration service as a replacement for CFCs. (authors)« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 massachusetts avenue, cambridge, ma 02139-4307 (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
The ASME Foundation, Inc., Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
21062342
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ICONE 10: 10. international conference on nuclear engineering, Arlington - Virginia (United States), 14-18 Apr 2002; Other Information: Country of input: France
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; BRAYTON CYCLE; BWR TYPE REACTORS; CARBON DIOXIDE; CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS; FOSSIL FUELS; GAS TURBINES; GCFR REACTOR; HELIUM; PRESSURE RANGE MEGA PA 10-100; REFRIGERATION; WORKING FLUIDS

Citation Formats

Dostal, Vaclav, Driscoll, Michael J, Hejzlar, Pavel, and Todreas, Neil E. A Supercritical CO{sub 2} Gas Turbine Power Cycle for Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors. United States: N. p., 2002. Web.
Dostal, Vaclav, Driscoll, Michael J, Hejzlar, Pavel, & Todreas, Neil E. A Supercritical CO{sub 2} Gas Turbine Power Cycle for Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors. United States.
Dostal, Vaclav, Driscoll, Michael J, Hejzlar, Pavel, and Todreas, Neil E. Mon . "A Supercritical CO{sub 2} Gas Turbine Power Cycle for Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors". United States.
@article{osti_21062342,
title = {A Supercritical CO{sub 2} Gas Turbine Power Cycle for Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors},
author = {Dostal, Vaclav and Driscoll, Michael J and Hejzlar, Pavel and Todreas, Neil E},
abstractNote = {Although proposed more than 35 years ago, the use of supercritical CO{sub 2} as the working fluid in a closed circuit Brayton cycle has so far not been implemented in practice. Industrial experience in several other relevant applications has improved prospects, and its good efficiency at modest temperatures (e.g., {approx}45% at 550 deg. C) make this cycle attractive for a variety of advanced nuclear reactor concepts. The version described here is for a gas-cooled, modular fast reactor. In the proposed gas-cooled fast breeder reactor design of present interest, CO{sub 2} is also especially attractive because it allows the use of metal fuel and core structures. The principal advantage of a supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is its reduced compression work compared to an ideal gas such as helium: about 15% of gross power turbine output vs. 40% or so. This also permits the simplification of use of a single compressor stage without inter-cooling. The requisite high pressure ({approx}20 MPa) also has the benefit of more compact heat exchangers and turbines. Finally, CO{sub 2} requires significantly fewer turbine stages than He, its principal competitor for nuclear gas turbine service. One disadvantage of CO{sub 2} in a direct cycle application is the production of N-16, which will require turbine plant shielding (albeit much less than in a BWR). The cycle efficiency is also very sensitive to recuperator effectiveness and compressor inlet temperature. It was found necessary to split the recuperator into separate high-and low-temperature components, and to employ intermediate re-compression, to avoid having a pinch-point in the cold end of the recuperator. Over the past several decades developments have taken place that make the acceptance of supercritical CO{sub 2} systems more likely: supercritical CO{sub 2} pipelines are in use in the western US in oil-recovery operations; 14 advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR) are employed in the UK at CO{sub 2} temperatures up to 650; and utilities now have experience with Rankine cycle power plants at pressures as high as 25 MPa. Furthermore, CO{sub 2} is the subject of R and D as the working fluid in schemes to sequester CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and for refrigeration service as a replacement for CFCs. (authors)},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21062342}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2002},
month = {7}
}

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