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Title: Nucleation and growth of Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto MgO(111)

Abstract

The nucleation and growth of Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films on MgO(111) substrates during dual direct current reactive magnetron cosputtering from Ti and Al targets in an Ar/N{sub 2} atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 690 deg. C have been investigated. Time and thickness dependent in situ specular x-ray reflectivity and x-ray diffraction in combination with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy reveal the formation of competing phases for slight N superstoichiometry with respect to Ti{sub 2}AlN. The stoichiometry deviations initiate the layer-by-layer growth of a {approx}380 A ring thick epitaxial N-substoichiometric cubic (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x})N{sub y} layer. N-vacancy driven diffusion of Ti and Al leads to decomposition of this metastable solid solution into nanosized cubic TiN{sub y{sup '}} and AlN{sub y{sup ''}} domains as well as to a solid-state reaction with the MgO(111) by formation of a Mg{sub 2}(Al:Ti)O{sub 4} spinel, reducing the transformed (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x})N{sub y} layer thickness down to {approx}60 A ring . Local AlN{sub y{sup ''}} domains serve as templates for Ti{sub 2}AlN nucleation at higher thicknesses. At the same time TiN{sub y{sup '}} and AlN{sub y{sup ''}} serve as a sink for excess gas phase N during the subsequent polycrystalline Ti{sub 2}AlN growthmore » with random (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x})N{sub y} renucleation as a tissue phase along Ti{sub 2}AlN grain boundaries. The individual Ti{sub 2}AlN grains with vertical sizes up to the total thickness retain local epitaxy to the substrate, with basal planes nonparallel to the substrate interface. Concurrently the (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x})N{sub y} layer is further reduced by inward Ti{sub 2}AlN grain growth along the basal planes.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21062145
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 102; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2786871; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALUMINIUM NITRIDES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; DIRECT CURRENT; EPITAXY; GRAIN BOUNDARIES; GRAIN GROWTH; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; NANOSTRUCTURES; NUCLEATION; REFLECTIVITY; RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY; SOLID SOLUTIONS; SPUTTERING; STOICHIOMETRY; SUBSTOICHIOMETRY; THIN FILMS; TITANIUM NITRIDES; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; VACANCIES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Beckers, M, Schell, N, Martins, R M. S., Muecklich, A, Moeller, W, Hultman, L, and Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Nucleation and growth of Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto MgO(111). United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2786871.
Beckers, M, Schell, N, Martins, R M. S., Muecklich, A, Moeller, W, Hultman, L, & Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Nucleation and growth of Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto MgO(111). United States. doi:10.1063/1.2786871.
Beckers, M, Schell, N, Martins, R M. S., Muecklich, A, Moeller, W, Hultman, L, and Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Mon . "Nucleation and growth of Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto MgO(111)". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2786871.
@article{osti_21062145,
title = {Nucleation and growth of Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto MgO(111)},
author = {Beckers, M and Schell, N and Martins, R M. S. and Muecklich, A and Moeller, W and Hultman, L and Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology},
abstractNote = {The nucleation and growth of Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films on MgO(111) substrates during dual direct current reactive magnetron cosputtering from Ti and Al targets in an Ar/N{sub 2} atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 690 deg. C have been investigated. Time and thickness dependent in situ specular x-ray reflectivity and x-ray diffraction in combination with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy reveal the formation of competing phases for slight N superstoichiometry with respect to Ti{sub 2}AlN. The stoichiometry deviations initiate the layer-by-layer growth of a {approx}380 A ring thick epitaxial N-substoichiometric cubic (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x})N{sub y} layer. N-vacancy driven diffusion of Ti and Al leads to decomposition of this metastable solid solution into nanosized cubic TiN{sub y{sup '}} and AlN{sub y{sup ''}} domains as well as to a solid-state reaction with the MgO(111) by formation of a Mg{sub 2}(Al:Ti)O{sub 4} spinel, reducing the transformed (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x})N{sub y} layer thickness down to {approx}60 A ring . Local AlN{sub y{sup ''}} domains serve as templates for Ti{sub 2}AlN nucleation at higher thicknesses. At the same time TiN{sub y{sup '}} and AlN{sub y{sup ''}} serve as a sink for excess gas phase N during the subsequent polycrystalline Ti{sub 2}AlN growth with random (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x})N{sub y} renucleation as a tissue phase along Ti{sub 2}AlN grain boundaries. The individual Ti{sub 2}AlN grains with vertical sizes up to the total thickness retain local epitaxy to the substrate, with basal planes nonparallel to the substrate interface. Concurrently the (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x})N{sub y} layer is further reduced by inward Ti{sub 2}AlN grain growth along the basal planes.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2786871},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
issn = {0021-8979},
number = 7,
volume = 102,
place = {United States},
year = {2007},
month = {10}
}