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Title: The Surface Morphology Characterization of Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold Under Bump Metallurgy (UBM) Using SEM

Abstract

This paper presents the surface morphology characterization at each process step in electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) deposition using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The characterization start at initial bond pad, followed by cleaning, activation, first zincation, zinc removal, second zincation, electroless nickel and lastly immersion gold process. The result shows that the surface morphology of initial bond pad starts to change with deposition of zinc layer and further changes with deposition of nickel and gold layer.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. School of Microelectronic, Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia (KUKUM), Blok A, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian KUKUM, Jalan Kangar-Arau, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21061695
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 909; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: ICSSST 2006: 2. international conference on solid state science and technology 2006, Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia), 4-6 Sep 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2739836; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; COATINGS; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; DEPOSITION; GOLD; LAYERS; MORPHOLOGY; NICKEL; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SURFACES; ZINC

Citation Formats

Arshad, M. K. Md, Isa, M. N. Md, and Sohiful, Z. M. A. The Surface Morphology Characterization of Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold Under Bump Metallurgy (UBM) Using SEM. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2739836.
Arshad, M. K. Md, Isa, M. N. Md, & Sohiful, Z. M. A. The Surface Morphology Characterization of Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold Under Bump Metallurgy (UBM) Using SEM. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2739836.
Arshad, M. K. Md, Isa, M. N. Md, and Sohiful, Z. M. A. Wed . "The Surface Morphology Characterization of Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold Under Bump Metallurgy (UBM) Using SEM". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2739836.
@article{osti_21061695,
title = {The Surface Morphology Characterization of Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold Under Bump Metallurgy (UBM) Using SEM},
author = {Arshad, M. K. Md and Isa, M. N. Md and Sohiful, Z. M. A.},
abstractNote = {This paper presents the surface morphology characterization at each process step in electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) deposition using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The characterization start at initial bond pad, followed by cleaning, activation, first zincation, zinc removal, second zincation, electroless nickel and lastly immersion gold process. The result shows that the surface morphology of initial bond pad starts to change with deposition of zinc layer and further changes with deposition of nickel and gold layer.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2739836},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 909,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed May 09 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Wed May 09 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Powder metallurgy iron specimens with porosities in the range 0% to 2% were electroless coated with nickel-phosphorus alloy from baths containing sodium hypophosphite (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O). The effect of coating time on thickness and phosphorus content of the deposit was analyzed. The free corrosion potentials and corrosion rates of the coated specimens were obtained by the Tafel extrapolation method in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Corrosion rates of the coated specimens after heat treatment also were studied. The observed corrosion characteristics were explained by the mixed-potential theory.
  • The catalytic activity of copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum for electro-oxidation of hypophosphite and electroless nickel plating was investigated in an ammoniacal solution of pH 8.8 at 50/sup 0/C by potential measurements and linear sweep voltammetry from -0.3 to -0.92V vs. SCE. Early stages of nickel plating on copper-palladium substrates were studied by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with EDAX. It was found that palladium-activated copper and gold were catalytically active in the entire range of potentials examined; copper was active below -0.6 platinum was not active at all. Small amounts of electrolytically deposited nickel considerably increased the electro-oxidationmore » rate of hypophosphite on copper, gold, and palladium. TEM examinations showed that activation of copper in a PdCl/sub 2//HCl solution resulted in the deposition of palladium in the form of separate patches. Electroless nickel deposition on copper substrates with separate palladium spots took place on copper and palladium independently of each other. The deposition on palladium was faster than that on copper. It was concluded that the activation of copper substrates around palladium spots occurred solely through a spontaneous potential shift, induced by electro-oxidation of hypophosphite on the palladium spots. It was suggested that small amounts of one metal synergistically enhanced the catalytic activity of the other metals.« less
  • Carbon materials were modified with MnOx via a novel self-limiting electroless deposition using KMnO4 as the precursor. Gold nanoparticles were loaded onto MnOx/C via deposition-precipitation. The resulting Au/MnOx/C showed higher catalytic activity in CO oxidation than Au/C, and the conversion was stable on stream. The performance of Au/MnOx/C was compared with that of Au/C, MnOx/C, MnOx/Au/C, Au/MnOx, and Au/MnOx/TiO2, and relevant characterization, applying XRD, BET, ICP-OES, SEM, TEM, and EDX, was conducted.
  • Fabrication of nickel microbumps on an aluminum electrode using a nickel displacement and a direct nickel plating process was investigated. Electroless nickel plating reaction with hypophosphite as a reducing agent was not initiated on the aluminum substrate, because aluminum does not have catalytic action on the oxidation of hypophosphite. Accordingly, nickel was initially deposited on the aluminum using nickel displacement plating for the initiation of the electroless plating. Nickel bumps on the aluminum electrode were fabricated by treatment of the nickel displacement plating followed by electroless nickel plating. Nickel microbumps also can be formed on the aluminum electrode without themore » displacement plating process. Activation of the aluminum surface is an indispensable process to initiate electroless nickel plating. Uniform bumps 20 {micro}m wide and 15 {micro}m high with good configuration were obtained by direct nickel plating after being activated with dimethyl amine borane.« less