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Title: Use of a TiBN Multilayer Coating for Wear Reduction

Abstract

The near surface area of forging dies is exposed to high mechanical loads. Additionally thermal and chemical stresses occur during the forging process. Depending on the number of forged parts, several kinds of damage develop in the surface area, which lead to failures of forging dies. Die wear is the main reason of failure with a 70% ratio. The abrasion resistance of the surface area of forging dies has to be increased in order to reduce wear. Therefore different methods were examined such as the increase of the abrasion resistance by plasma nitriding and by coating with ceramic layers (TiN, TiCN, TiC, CrN). These layers are applied to the forging die by using PACVD or PAPVD treatment. At the Institute of Metal Forming and Metal-Forming Machines of the University of Hanover a wear reduction by factor 3.5 compared to nitrided forging dies for forging helical gears was achieved. This was possible by using a coating compound of 18 ceramic layers. These excellent results for the multilayer system can be explained through the energy reduction at the inner boundaries and a crack deflection effect at the phase transitions. The layer support of neighboring layers and a stress relaxation through the stackedmore » construction of the layer system are also improving the durability of the coating. This multilayer coating consists of a TiN-TiCN-TiC layer system with an overall thickness of 1.8 {mu}m. This paper presents investigations of this multilayer compound and further research to reduce wear through an additional TiBN coating layer. With this additional top coating an increase of the thermal resistance and the oxidation resistance can be achieved. As a result of this enhancement a further increase of the wear reduction was expected.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ; ;  [2]
  1. Institute of Metal Forming and Metal-Forming Machines, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, An der Universitaet 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany)
  2. Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, An der Universitaet 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21057328
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 908; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: NUMIFORM '07: 9. international conference on numerical methods in industrial forming processes, Porto (Portugal), 17-21 Jun 2007; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2740949; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CERAMICS; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; CHROMIUM NITRIDES; COATINGS; CRACKS; FORGING; LAYERS; OXIDATION; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; STRESS RELAXATION; STRESSES; SURFACE AREA; TITANIUM BORIDES; TITANIUM CARBIDES; TITANIUM NITRIDES; WEAR; WEAR RESISTANCE

Citation Formats

Behrens, Bernd-Arno, Bistron, Marcus, Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm, Moehwald, Kai, and Deisser, Todd Alexander. Use of a TiBN Multilayer Coating for Wear Reduction. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2740949.
Behrens, Bernd-Arno, Bistron, Marcus, Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm, Moehwald, Kai, & Deisser, Todd Alexander. Use of a TiBN Multilayer Coating for Wear Reduction. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2740949.
Behrens, Bernd-Arno, Bistron, Marcus, Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm, Moehwald, Kai, and Deisser, Todd Alexander. Thu . "Use of a TiBN Multilayer Coating for Wear Reduction". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2740949.
@article{osti_21057328,
title = {Use of a TiBN Multilayer Coating for Wear Reduction},
author = {Behrens, Bernd-Arno and Bistron, Marcus and Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm and Moehwald, Kai and Deisser, Todd Alexander},
abstractNote = {The near surface area of forging dies is exposed to high mechanical loads. Additionally thermal and chemical stresses occur during the forging process. Depending on the number of forged parts, several kinds of damage develop in the surface area, which lead to failures of forging dies. Die wear is the main reason of failure with a 70% ratio. The abrasion resistance of the surface area of forging dies has to be increased in order to reduce wear. Therefore different methods were examined such as the increase of the abrasion resistance by plasma nitriding and by coating with ceramic layers (TiN, TiCN, TiC, CrN). These layers are applied to the forging die by using PACVD or PAPVD treatment. At the Institute of Metal Forming and Metal-Forming Machines of the University of Hanover a wear reduction by factor 3.5 compared to nitrided forging dies for forging helical gears was achieved. This was possible by using a coating compound of 18 ceramic layers. These excellent results for the multilayer system can be explained through the energy reduction at the inner boundaries and a crack deflection effect at the phase transitions. The layer support of neighboring layers and a stress relaxation through the stacked construction of the layer system are also improving the durability of the coating. This multilayer coating consists of a TiN-TiCN-TiC layer system with an overall thickness of 1.8 {mu}m. This paper presents investigations of this multilayer compound and further research to reduce wear through an additional TiBN coating layer. With this additional top coating an increase of the thermal resistance and the oxidation resistance can be achieved. As a result of this enhancement a further increase of the wear reduction was expected.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2740949},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 908,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 17 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu May 17 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • This work employs the PVD process to deposit coatings of single layer TiN, binary layer TiN/TiCN, multilayer TiN/Ti/TiN, and sequenced TiN/TiCN/TiN multilayer coatings with variable individual TiN-layer and TiCN-layer thicknesses on tungsten carbide disks and inserts. Also investigated are the fracture mechanisms and the influence of sequence and thickness of these coatings on cylinder-on-disk, line-contact wear mode and ball-on-disk, point-contact wear mode through SRV reciprocating wear tests. Actual milling tests identify wear performance. Experimental results indicate that the coating with a total thickness of 7 {micro}m and layer sequence TiN/TiCN/TiN exhibits good wear resistance on SRV wear test and millingmore » test. The thickest multilayer TiN/Ti/TiN coating, although having the highest hardness, has the worst wear resistance for all tests. Notably zero-wear performance was observed for all coating disks under cutting fluid lubricated condition due to the transferred layers formed between the contact interface.« less
  • Mechanical shaft seals used in pumps are critically important to the safe operation of the paper, pulp, and chemical process industry, as well as petroleum and nuclear power plants. Specifically, these seals prevent the leakage of toxic gases and hazardous chemicals to the environment and final products from the rotating equipment used in manufacturing processes. Diamond coatings have the potential to provide negligible wear, ultralow friction, and high corrosion resistance for the sliding surfaces of mechanical seals, because diamond exhibits outstanding tribological, physical, and chemical properties. However, diamond coatings produced by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) exhibit high surface roughnessmore » (R{sub a} {>=} 1 {mu}m), which results in high wear of the seal counterface, leading to premature seal failure. To avoid this problem, we have developed an ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film formed by a unique CH{sub 4}/Ar microwave plasma CVD method. This method yields extremely smooth diamond coatings with surface roughness R{sub a} = 20-30 nm and an average grain size of 2-5 nm. We report the results of a systematic test program involving uncoated and UNCD-coated SiC shaft seals. Results confirmed that the UNCD-coated seals exhibited neither measurable wear nor any leakage during long-duration tests that took 21 days to complete. In addition, the UNCD coatings reduced the frictional torque for seal rotation by five to six times compared with the uncoated seals. This work promises to lead to rotating shaft seals with much improved service life, reduced maintenance cost, reduced leakage of environmentally hazardous materials, and increased energy savings. This technology may also have many other tribological applications involving rolling or sliding contacts.« less
  • In the present study, pulse electrode surfacing (PES) technique was employed to deposit ultrahard and wear-resistant titanium carbide (TiC) coating on AISI 1018 steel. Wear resistance of the coated surface increased significantly. An attempt was made to correlate the thermodynamic predictions and experimental observations. A composite coating that is adherent, crack free, and defect free in nature was obtained, with TiC being the most stable phase. Islands of TiC of various shapes and sizes are present in the Fe-rich matrix in the coating. Microhardness measurements suggest high hardness values in the coating region. Tribological properties such as wear resistance andmore » coefficient of friction were also measured. The coefficient of friction data do not show significant fluctuations. Wear and friction phenomena in such a coating have been explained on the basis of a model based on composite/multiphase material.« less
  • The investigations reported on in this paper show that the friction pair consisting of the coating of the nickel boride-nickel alloy and rubber is characterized by high endurance in the condition of sliding friction in a clay solution with an abrasive material. The wear resistance of the coating was compared with that of 40KhA and 20Kh13 steels (HRC /SUB r/ 52-55). The tests were conducted on the specimens in the form of the rotor of a screw drilling motor D85. The counterbody was represented by the specimens' having the profile of the stator of the same motor. The axis ofmore » the specimen was displaced in relation to the axis of the specimen of the starter by eccentricity equal to half the height of the tooth. Testing showed that the wear resistance of the experimental steel radial sliding supports hardened with the nickel boride-nickel protective alloy is twice as high as the resistance of the rubber-metallic sliding supports (in which the internal surface of the outer ring is rubber-coated and the internal ring is made of 40 KhA steel).« less