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Title: Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

Abstract

In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. 'Valahia' University of Targoviste, Targoviste (Romania)
  2. 'Dunarea de Jos' University of Galati, Galati (Romania)
  3. 'Horia Hulubei' NIPNE, Bucharest (Romania)
  4. 'Ovidius' University of Constanta, Constanta (Romania)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21057196
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 899; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 6. international conference of the Balkan Physical Union, Istanbul (Turkey), 22-26 Aug 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2733279; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ALKALI METALS; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS; ION MICROPROBE ANALYSIS; MULTI-ELEMENT ANALYSIS; PHOTON EMISSION; PIXE ANALYSIS; QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; SOILS; STEELS; TRACE AMOUNTS; TRANSITION ELEMENTS; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Popescu, I. V., Stihi, C., Bancuta, A., Dima, G., Ene, A., Badica, T., and Ghisa, V. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2733279.
Popescu, I. V., Stihi, C., Bancuta, A., Dima, G., Ene, A., Badica, T., & Ghisa, V. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). United States. doi:10.1063/1.2733279.
Popescu, I. V., Stihi, C., Bancuta, A., Dima, G., Ene, A., Badica, T., and Ghisa, V. Mon . "Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2733279.
@article{osti_21057196,
title = {Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)},
author = {Popescu, I. V. and Stihi, C. and Bancuta, A. and Dima, G. and Ene, A. and Badica, T. and Ghisa, V.},
abstractNote = {In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2733279},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 899,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 23 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon Apr 23 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Quantitative multielectrochemical analysis using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1 and 2 MeV proton bombardment on thin targets has been achieved. The method is based on the calculation of atomic ratios from experimentally determined relative x-ray efficiency curves. Sample preparation techniques involving digestion and homogeneous deposition of samples and standards with a minimum of contamination have been investigated. The accuracy of the method has been evaluated using five standard reference materials obtained from the National Bureau of Standards. The elimination of bremsstrahlung associated with the charging effect of non-conducting samples in PIXE analysis has been accomplished using thin carbonmore » foils in the beam path. Applications of the PIXE technique to studies on deep-sea ferromanganese nodules were performed. The utility of PIXE in the analysis of nodules and in the following of the distribution of a large number of elements through the various stages of a processing scheme were demonstrated.« less
  • The Second International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and its analytical applications was held in Lund, Sweden, June 9-12, 1980. About a hundred papers were presented, including seven invited talks (PIXE and particle scattering, microbeam analysis, applications to aerosols and biological samples). The main impression left by the conference was that both the PIXE method and its applications are in a phase of fast development. Considerable effort has successfully been devoted to optimizing the basic PIXE technique. Also the great advantage of simultaneously getting information about lighter elements and sample mass was reported to have been successfully employedmore » in routine analyses. PIXE, which was initially considered to be a method mainly for thin samples, has also been shown to be competitive for a variety of thick samples. Data from aerosol studies was presented. With the PIXE-method, it is feasible to perform series of measurements over a long period of time, many samples in parallel and/or samples from sites of poor accessibility. However, the advantages of PIXE may be further exploited in aerosol investigations and some promising lines of sampler development were reported. Sample preparation techniques are crucial for applications to biological samples and several laboratories are engaged in such developmental work. However, it was also evident that PIXE is already giving significant contributions to research in biology and medicine.« less
  • An analytical particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) procedure for the multielement analysis of biological materials consists of various stages. These include sample and specimen preparation, specimen bombardment, spectral data processing, quantification and correction for matrix effects. Critical aspects of the procedure are contamination and/or losses during sample and specimen preparation and the danger of radiation or heat-induced losses during specimen bombardment. With optimized PIXE procedures precisions of 1-2% and an accuracy of better than 5% are obtainable, whereas the detection limits are down to 0.1 microgram/g. Because of its inherent characteristics, PIXE offers great potential for trace element analysis in themore » biological and medical fields, and this is demonstrated through selected examples of applications.121 references.« less
  • A multifaceted approach to atmospheric aerosol analysis is often desirable in field studies where an understanding of technical comparability among different measurement techniques is essential. Herein we report quantitative intercomparisons of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA), performed off-line under vacuum, with analysis by Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) carried out in real-time during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Good agreement was observed for mass concentrations of PIXE-measured sulfur (assuming it was dominated by SO 4 2-) and AMS-measured sulfate during the most of the campaign. PESA-measured hydrogen mass was separated intomore » sulfate H and organic H mass fractions assuming the only major contributions were (NH 4) 2SO 4 and organic compounds. Comparison of the organic H mass with AMS organic aerosol measurements indicates that about 75% of the mass of these species evaporated under vacuum. However ~25% of the organics does remain under vacuum, which is only possible with low vapor pressure compounds, and which supports the presence of high molecular weight and/or highly oxidized organics consistent with atmospheric aging. Approximately 10% of the chloride detected by AMS was measured by PIXE, possibly in the form of metal-chloride complexes, while the majority of Cl was likely present as more volatile species including NH 4Cl. This is the first comparison of PIXE/PESA and AMS, and to our knowledge also the first report of PESA hydrogen measurements for urban organic aerosols.« less
  • Particle Induced X-ray Emission and proton microprobe analyses have been applied for the investigation of regional elemental distributions in connection with various pathological states in the brain. Malignant brain tumors and adjacent histologically intact tissue removed during surgery were analysed with PIXE. Systematic elemental variations, e.g., for calcium and selenium, were observed in the tumor front. The proton microprobe was applied to study the Ca and K concentrations in various cell strata in hippocampus following transient ischaemia in rat brain. Significant increases in the Ca level occurred in selectively vulnerable cells within 48 h after the ischaemia.