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Title: Medical X-ray Imaging by MIRRORCLE-6X

Abstract

The portable synchrotron 'MIRRORCLE-6X' provides hard x-rays with high brightness and wide energy spectrum ranging from 10-300 keV, emitted from a micron-sized source, with wide divergence of {+-} 85 mrad. Correspondingly, images obtained using the 'MIRRORCLE-6X' showed significantly improved characteristics compared to conventional x-ray tube images, namely, improved refraction contrast, high resolution, and high magnification. Thus, the 'MIRRORCLE-6X' is considered to be a novel medical imaging source.A magnified image of a chest phantom, wherein a urethane ball of 8 mm diameter was implanted as an imitation of a cancer, was obtained. The detector used was an imaging-plate (Fujifilm imaging plate, FCR ST-IV) with 150 {mu}m pixel size. The phantom and the detector were respectively set at 50 cm and 540 cm from the x-ray source, so that the magnification was 10.8x. The x-ray source was a Cu 25 {mu}m rod. The resolution was about 25 {mu}m. Images with such high resolution and magnification cannot be obtained by conventional x-ray tubes with a source size of mm order. We can see the edges of costae and of the urethane ball at the back of the costae by the refraction contrast effect. Furthermore, we also see blood vessels surrounding the urethane ball.more » White spots, which are cross sections of blood vessels, were also observed. Therefore, observations of the shape of a cancer without surgical resection should be possible, and accurate diagnosis can be given using the 'MIRRORCLE-6X'.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3]; ; ;  [4]
  1. Department of Photonics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Synchrotron Light Life Science Center, Ritsumeikan Univ. (Japan)
  2. Department of Photonics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University (Japan)
  3. Photon Production Laboratory, Ltd (Japan)
  4. Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21056948
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 902; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 2. international symposium on portable synchrotron light sources and advanced applications, Shiga (Japan), 15-17 Jan 2007; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2723618; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BLOOD VESSELS; DIAGNOSIS; ENERGY SPECTRA; HARD X RADIATION; IMAGES; KEV RANGE; NEOPLASMS; PHANTOMS; PHOTON EMISSION; PORTABLE SOURCES; REFRACTION; RESOLUTION; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; SYNCHROTRONS; URETHANE; X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY; X-RAY SOURCES

Citation Formats

Sasaki, M., Yamada, H., Hirai, T., Takaku, J., Morita, M., Nitta, T., Takahashi, M., and Murata, K.. Medical X-ray Imaging by MIRRORCLE-6X. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2723618.
Sasaki, M., Yamada, H., Hirai, T., Takaku, J., Morita, M., Nitta, T., Takahashi, M., & Murata, K.. Medical X-ray Imaging by MIRRORCLE-6X. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2723618.
Sasaki, M., Yamada, H., Hirai, T., Takaku, J., Morita, M., Nitta, T., Takahashi, M., and Murata, K.. Fri . "Medical X-ray Imaging by MIRRORCLE-6X". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2723618.
@article{osti_21056948,
title = {Medical X-ray Imaging by MIRRORCLE-6X},
author = {Sasaki, M. and Yamada, H. and Hirai, T. and Takaku, J. and Morita, M. and Nitta, T. and Takahashi, M. and Murata, K.},
abstractNote = {The portable synchrotron 'MIRRORCLE-6X' provides hard x-rays with high brightness and wide energy spectrum ranging from 10-300 keV, emitted from a micron-sized source, with wide divergence of {+-} 85 mrad. Correspondingly, images obtained using the 'MIRRORCLE-6X' showed significantly improved characteristics compared to conventional x-ray tube images, namely, improved refraction contrast, high resolution, and high magnification. Thus, the 'MIRRORCLE-6X' is considered to be a novel medical imaging source.A magnified image of a chest phantom, wherein a urethane ball of 8 mm diameter was implanted as an imitation of a cancer, was obtained. The detector used was an imaging-plate (Fujifilm imaging plate, FCR ST-IV) with 150 {mu}m pixel size. The phantom and the detector were respectively set at 50 cm and 540 cm from the x-ray source, so that the magnification was 10.8x. The x-ray source was a Cu 25 {mu}m rod. The resolution was about 25 {mu}m. Images with such high resolution and magnification cannot be obtained by conventional x-ray tubes with a source size of mm order. We can see the edges of costae and of the urethane ball at the back of the costae by the refraction contrast effect. Furthermore, we also see blood vessels surrounding the urethane ball. White spots, which are cross sections of blood vessels, were also observed. Therefore, observations of the shape of a cancer without surgical resection should be possible, and accurate diagnosis can be given using the 'MIRRORCLE-6X'.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2723618},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 902,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 30 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Fri Mar 30 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Purpose: The implementation of in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) for soft-tissue patient imaging is hampered by the lack of a bright and spatially coherent x-ray source that fits into the hospital environment. This article provides a quantitative characterization of the phase-contrast enhancement of a PCI system based on the miniature synchrotron technology MIRRORCLE-6X. Methods: The phase-contrast effect was measured using an edge response of a plexiglass plate as a function of the incident angle of radiation. We have developed a comprehensive x-ray propagation model based on the system's components, properties, and geometry in order to interpret the measurement data.more » Monte-Carlo simulations are used to estimate the system's spectral properties and resolution. Results: The measured ratio of the detected phase-contrast to the absorption contrast is currently in the range 100% to 200%. Experiments show that with the current implementation of the MIRRORCLE-6X, a target smaller than 30-40 {mu}m does not lead to a larger phase-contrast. The reason for this is that the fraction of x-rays produced by the material (carbon filament and glue) that is used for mounting the target in the electron beam is more than 25% of the total amount of x-rays produced. This increases the apparent source size. The measured phase-contrast is at maximum two times larger than the absorption contrast with the current set-up. Conclusions: Calculations based on our model of the present imaging system predict that the phase-contrast can be up to an order of magnitude larger than the absorption contrast in case the materials used for mounting the target in the electron beam do not (or hardly) produce x-rays. The methods described in this paper provide vital feedback for guiding future modifications to the design of the x-ray target of MIRRORCLE-type system and configuration of the in-line PCI systems in general.« less
  • X-ray fluorescence analysis of heavy elements was performed using the portable synchrotron 'MIRRORCLE-6X' for peak injection currents 10-50 mA and four different target conditions. It is observed that the spectrum for current 30 mA and 'no target' shows narrow peaks of fluorescent X-ray and high resolution of the peak position without a pile-up effect.
  • Brilliant hard x-rays are produced by the portable synchrotron named MIRRORCLE. The x-ray images taken by MIRRORCLE show the enhanced edge effect even with contact imaging. Bodies composed of light elements are distinguished in spite of its dominated hard x-ray components. The imaging mechanism involved, which is different from the phase contrast, is studied in this paper. It is found that the edge effect is partly due to the micron order x-ray source spot size, and MeV region hard x-rays.
  • The portable synchrotron MERRORCLE-6X is a novel x-ray source suitable for hard x-ray imaging. Highly brilliant x-rays are generated by MIRRORCLE-6X in the shape of cone from a source with micron size. We obtained images with high magnification and high resolution by these x-rays, and found that they can be utilized for medical imaging. Recently, we started to perform ideal 3-dimentional computed tomography (3D-CT) based on the Feldkamp algorithm, which is the most popular reconstruction algorithm for a cone beam CT, using a flat panel detector. Therefore, we developed a magnified 3D-CT system of high quality using MIRRORCLE-6X.
  • The technique of computed tomography (CT) has been used in various fields, such as medical, non-destructive testing (NDT), baggage checking, etc. A 3D-CT system based on the portable synchrotron 'MIRRORCLE'-series will be a novel instrument for these fields. The hard x-rays generated from the 'MIRRORCLE' have a wide energy spectrum. Light and thin materials create absorption and refraction contrast in x-ray images by the lower energy component (< 60 keV), and heavy and thick materials create absorption contrast by the higher energy component. In addition, images with higher resolutions can be obtained using 'MIRRORCLE' with a small source size ofmore » micron order. Thus, high resolution 3D-CT images of specimens containing both light and heavy materials can be obtained using 'MIRRORCLE' and a 2D-detector with a wide dynamic range. In this paper, the development and output of a 3D-CT system using the 'MIRRORCLE-6X' and a flat panel detector are reported.A 3D image of a piece of concrete was obtained. The detector was a flat panel detector (VARIAN, PAXSCAN2520) with 254 {mu}m pixel size. The object and the detector were set at 50 cm and 250 cm respectively from the x-ray source, so that the magnification was 5x. The x-ray source was a 50 {mu}m Pt rod. The rotation stage and the detector were remote-controlled using a computer, which was originally created using LabView and Visual Basic software. The exposure time was about 20 minutes. The reconstruction calculation was based on the Feldkamp algorithm, and the pixel size was 50 {mu}m. We could observe sub-mm holes and density differences in the object. Thus, the 'MIRRORCLE-CV' with 1MeV electron energy, which has same x-ray generation principles, will be an excellent x-ray source for medical diagnostics and NDT.« less