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Title: Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS

Abstract

The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of secondary neutron production cross sections in reactions of Xe at 400 MeV/u with lithium and lead targets, measurements of neutrons outside of thick concrete and iron shields, and measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. A practical example that tests magnetic field capabilities is shown for a simulated 48Ca beam at 500 MeV/u striking a lithium target to produce the rare isotope 44Si, with ion transport through a fragmentation-reaction magnetic pre-separator. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably for the simulation of radiation fields that is necessary for designing safe, reliable and cost effective future high-powered heavy-ion accelerators in rare isotope beam facilities.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21055005
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 896; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: Hadronic shower simulation workshop, Batavia, IL (United States), 6-8 Sep 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2720458; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; BENCHMARKS; CALCIUM 48; CALCIUM 48 REACTIONS; CHARGED-PARTICLE TRANSPORT; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; CROSS SECTIONS; LEAD 208 TARGET; LITHIUM 7 TARGET; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEUTRON TRANSPORT THEORY; NEUTRONS; NUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION; NUCLEAR REACTION YIELD; P CODES; PERFORMANCE; SILICON 44; XENON 129 REACTIONS; XENON 132 REACTIONS

Citation Formats

Ronningen, Reginald M. Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2720458.
Ronningen, Reginald M. Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2720458.
Ronningen, Reginald M. Mon . "Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2720458.
@article{osti_21055005,
title = {Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS},
author = {Ronningen, Reginald M.},
abstractNote = {The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of secondary neutron production cross sections in reactions of Xe at 400 MeV/u with lithium and lead targets, measurements of neutrons outside of thick concrete and iron shields, and measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. A practical example that tests magnetic field capabilities is shown for a simulated 48Ca beam at 500 MeV/u striking a lithium target to produce the rare isotope 44Si, with ion transport through a fragmentation-reaction magnetic pre-separator. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably for the simulation of radiation fields that is necessary for designing safe, reliable and cost effective future high-powered heavy-ion accelerators in rare isotope beam facilities.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2720458},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 896,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 19 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon Mar 19 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Powerful accelerators such as spallation neutron sources, muon-collider/neutrino facilities, and rare isotope beam facilities must be designed with the consideration that they handle the beam power reliably and safely, and they must be optimized to yield maximum performance relative to their design requirements. The simulation codes used for design purposes must produce reliable results. If not, component and facility designs can become costly, have limited lifetime and usefulness, and could even be unsafe. The objective of this proposal is to assess the performance of the currently available codes PHITS, FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and HETC-HEDS that could be used for designmore » simulations involving heavy ion transport. We plan to access their performance by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data of benchmark quality. Quantitative knowledge of the biases and the uncertainties of the simulations is essential as this potentially impacts the safe, reliable and cost effective design of any future radioactive ion beam facility. Further benchmarking of heavy-ion transport codes was one of the actions recommended in the Report of the 2003 RIA R&D Workshop".« less
  • Version 03 PHITS can deal with the transport of almost all particles (nucleons, nuclei, mesons, photons, and electrons) over wide energy ranges, using several nuclear reaction models and nuclear data libraries. Geometrical configuration of the simulation can be set with GG (General Geometry) or CG (Combinatorial Geometry). Various quantities such as heat deposition, track length and production yields can be deduced from the simulation, using implemented estimator functions called "tally". The code also has a function to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results as well as the setup geometries, using a code ANGEL. The physical processes includedmore » in PHITS can be divided into two categories, transport process and collision process. In the transport process, PHITS can simulate motion of particles under external fields such as magnetic and gravity. Without the external fields, neutral particles move along a straight trajectory with constant energy up to the next collision point. However, charge particles interact many times with electrons in the material losing energy and changing direction. PHITS treats ionization processes not as collision but as a transport process, using the continuous-slowing-down approximation. The average stopping power is given by the charge density of the material and the momentum of the particle taking into account the fluctuations of the energy loss and the angular deviation. In the collision process, PHITS can simulate the elastic and inelastic interactions as well as decay of particles. The total reaction cross section, or the life time of the particle is an essential quantity in the determination of the mean free path of the transport particle. According to the mean free path, PHITS chooses the next collision point using the Monte Carlo method. To generate the secondary particles of the collision, we need the information of the final states of the collision. For neutron induced reactions in low energy region, PHITS employs the cross sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles, we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u. The special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative biological effectiveness of charged particles. From version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to 140 MeV. From version 2.76, electron and photon transport algorithm based on EGS5 (Hirayama et al. 2005) was incorporated. Models for describing photo-nuclear reaction above 140 MeV and muon-nuclear reaction were implemented. Event-generator mode version 2 was developed. Relativistic theory can be considered in the JQMD model.« less
  • Nutrient and heavy metal transport capacity of sediment from small watersheds in the southwestern U.S. was studied. If watersheds are of a uniform bedrock and have single vegetation type, the watersheds have a uniform nutrient and heavy metal transport capacity. Analyses of sediment from ponderosa pine communities on basalt, sandstone, limestone, and granite bedrocks are compared with sediment from a mixed conifer community on basalt bedrock. The pine communities yielded different nutrient and heavy metal transport levels due to differences in bedrock makeup. (3 graphs, 1 map, 13 references, 4 tables)