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Title: Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings

Abstract

Aerospace forging inspections typically use multiple, subsurface-focused sound beams in combination with digital C-scan image acquisition and display. Traditionally, forging inspections have been implemented using multiple single element, fixed focused transducers. Recent advances in phased array technology have made it possible to perform an equivalent inspection using a single phased array transducer. General Electric has developed a system to perform titanium forging inspection based on medical phased array technology and advanced image processing techniques. The components of that system and system performance for titanium inspection will be discussed.

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ; ;  [2];  [3]
  1. GE Aviation, 1 Neumann Way, Mail Drop Q8, Cincinnati, OH 45208 (United States)
  2. GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)
  3. GE Inspection Technologies, 50 Industrial Park Road, Lewistown, PA 17044 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21054982
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 894; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: Conference on review of progress in quantitative nondestructive evaluation, Portland, OR (United States), 30 Jul - 4 Aug 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2718058; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; FORGING; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; PERFORMANCE; SOUND WAVES; TITANIUM; TRANSDUCERS; ULTRASONIC TESTING

Citation Formats

Howard, P., Klaassen, R., Kurkcu, N., Barshinger, J., Chalek, C., Nieters, E., Sun, Zongqi, and Fromont, F. de. Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2718058.
Howard, P., Klaassen, R., Kurkcu, N., Barshinger, J., Chalek, C., Nieters, E., Sun, Zongqi, & Fromont, F. de. Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2718058.
Howard, P., Klaassen, R., Kurkcu, N., Barshinger, J., Chalek, C., Nieters, E., Sun, Zongqi, and Fromont, F. de. Wed . "Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2718058.
@article{osti_21054982,
title = {Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings},
author = {Howard, P. and Klaassen, R. and Kurkcu, N. and Barshinger, J. and Chalek, C. and Nieters, E. and Sun, Zongqi and Fromont, F. de},
abstractNote = {Aerospace forging inspections typically use multiple, subsurface-focused sound beams in combination with digital C-scan image acquisition and display. Traditionally, forging inspections have been implemented using multiple single element, fixed focused transducers. Recent advances in phased array technology have made it possible to perform an equivalent inspection using a single phased array transducer. General Electric has developed a system to perform titanium forging inspection based on medical phased array technology and advanced image processing techniques. The components of that system and system performance for titanium inspection will be discussed.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2718058},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 894,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 21 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Wed Mar 21 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The phased array implementation of a focused zoned ultrasonic inspection to achieve a >3dB signal-to-noise for no. 1/2 flat bottom holes (FBH) in titanium is reported. Previous work established the ultrasound focusing required to achieve the targeted sensitivity. This work reports on the design of a phased array transducer capable of maintaining the needed focus to the depths required in the forging inspection. The performance of the phased array inspection is verified by examining signal-to-noise of no. 1/2 FBHs contained in coupons cut from actual forgings.
  • Ultrasonic examinations on large forgings like rotor shafts for turbines or components for nuclear reactors are carried out at various manufacturing stages and during in-service inspections. During the manufacture, most of the inspections are carried out manually. Special in-service conditions, such as those at nuclear pressure vessels, have resulted in the development of mechanized scanning equipment. Ultrasonic probes have improved, and well-adapted sound fields and pulse shapes and based on special imaging procedures for the representation of the reportable reflectors have been applied. Since the geometry of many forgings requires the use of a multitude of angles for the inspectionsmore » in-service and during manufacture, phased-array probes can be used successfully. The main advantages of the phased-array concept, e.g. the generation of a multitude of angles with the typical increase of redundancy in detection and quantitative evaluation and the possibility to produce pictures of defect situations, will be described in this contribution.« less
  • Results were presented last year to demonstrate the feasibility of using an ultrasonic phased array to inspect spot welds. Analysis of the signals in the Fourier domain allows identification of satisfactory, undersized and defective welds. Signal- and image-processing techniques have been implemented with the goal of extracting the dimensions of the weld nugget. The results presented here were obtained using a portable phased-array controller. Toward developing a fully portable system, a housing for the probe is under development with an integrated mechanical scanning system.
  • A PRSEUS test article was subjected to controlled impact on the skin face followed by static and cyclic axial compressions. Phased array ultrasonic inspection was conducted before impact, and after each of the test conditions. A linear phased array probe with a manual X-Y scanner was used for interrogation. Ultrasound showed a delamination between the skin and stringer flange adjacent to the impact. As designed, the stitching in the flange arrested the lateral flaw formation. Subsequent ultrasonic data showed no delamination growth due to continued loading.
  • Reductions in the beam diameter and pulse duration of focused ultrasound for titanium inspections are believed to result in a signal-to-noise ratio improvement for embedded defect detection. It has been inferred from this result that detection limits could be extended to smaller defects through a larger diameter, higher frequency transducer resulting in a reduced beamwidth and pulse duration. Using Continuum Probe Designer{sup TM} (Pat. Pending), a transducer array was developed for full coverage inspection of 8 inch titanium billets. The main challenge in realizing a large aperture phased array transducer for billet inspection is ensuring that the number of elementsmore » remains within the budget allotted by the driving electronics. The optimization technique implemented by Continuum Probe Designer{sup TM} yields an array with twice the aperture but the same number of elements as existing phased arrays for the same application. The unequal area element design was successfully manufactured and validated both numerically and experimentally. Part I of this two-part series presents the design, simulation and modeling steps, while Part II presents the experimental validation and comparative study to multizone.« less