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Title: Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging and Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Comparison

Abstract

Sandia National Laboratories Airworthiness Assurance Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) implemented two crack probability of detection (POD) experiments to compare in a quantitative manner the ability of Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging and fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) to reliably detect cracks. Blind Sonic IR and FPI inspections were performed on titanium and Inconel registered specimens having statistically relevant flaw profiles. Inspector hit/miss data was collected and POD curves for each technique were generated and compared. In addition, the crack lengths for a number of titanium and Inconel registered reference standards were measured before and after repeated Sonic IR inspections to determine if crack growth occurred.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Sandia National Laboratories, Airworthiness Assurance, Albuquerque, MM 87106-0615 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21054972
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 894; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: Conference on review of progress in quantitative nondestructive evaluation, Portland, OR (United States), 30 Jul - 4 Aug 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2718008; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CHROMIUM ALLOYS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CRACK PROPAGATION; CRACKS; DEFECTS; DETECTION; NICKEL ALLOYS; NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING; PROBABILITY; SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES; TITANIUM; VALIDATION

Citation Formats

DiMambro, J., Ashbaugh, D. M., Nelson, C. L., and Spencer, F. W. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging and Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Comparison. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2718008.
DiMambro, J., Ashbaugh, D. M., Nelson, C. L., & Spencer, F. W. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging and Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Comparison. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2718008.
DiMambro, J., Ashbaugh, D. M., Nelson, C. L., and Spencer, F. W. Wed . "Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging and Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Comparison". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2718008.
@article{osti_21054972,
title = {Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging and Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Comparison},
author = {DiMambro, J. and Ashbaugh, D. M. and Nelson, C. L. and Spencer, F. W.},
abstractNote = {Sandia National Laboratories Airworthiness Assurance Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) implemented two crack probability of detection (POD) experiments to compare in a quantitative manner the ability of Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging and fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) to reliably detect cracks. Blind Sonic IR and FPI inspections were performed on titanium and Inconel registered specimens having statistically relevant flaw profiles. Inspector hit/miss data was collected and POD curves for each technique were generated and compared. In addition, the crack lengths for a number of titanium and Inconel registered reference standards were measured before and after repeated Sonic IR inspections to determine if crack growth occurred.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2718008},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 894,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 21 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Wed Mar 21 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Abstract not provided.
  • Abstract not provided.
  • At last year's QNDE conference, we presented our development of Sonic IR imaging technology in metal structures, with results from both experimental studies and theoretical computing. In the latest aircraft designs, such as the B787 from Boeing, composites have become the major materials in structures such as the fuselage and wings. This is in contrast to composites' use only in auxiliary components such as flaps and spoilers in the past. With today's advanced technology of fabrication, it is expected the new materials can be put in use in even more aircraft structures due to its light weight and high strengthmore » (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, with increases in fuel cost, reducing the aircraft's body weight becomes more and more appealing. In this presentation, we describe the progress on our development of Sonic IR imaging for aircraft composite structures. In particular, we describe the some unexpected results discovered while modeling delaminations. These results were later experimentally verified with an engineered delamination.« less
  • The subject of NDE Reliability and POD has gone through multiple phases since its humble beginning in the late 1960s. This was followed by several programs including the important one nicknamed “Have Cracks – Will Travel” or in short “Have Cracks” by Lockheed Georgia Company for US Air Force during 1974–1978. This and other studies ultimately led to a series of developments in the field of reliability and POD starting from the introduction of fracture mechanics and Damaged Tolerant Design (DTD) to statistical framework by Bernes and Hovey in 1981 for POD estimation to MIL-STD HDBK 1823 (1999) and 1823Amore » (2009). During the last decade, various groups and researchers have further studied the reliability and POD using Model Assisted POD (MAPOD), Simulation Assisted POD (SAPOD), and applying Bayesian Statistics. All and each of these developments had one objective, i.e., improving accuracy of life prediction in components that to a large extent depends on the reliability and capability of NDE methods. Therefore, it is essential to have a reliable detection and sizing of large flaws in components. Currently, POD is used for studying reliability and capability of NDE methods, though POD data offers no absolute truth regarding NDE reliability, i.e., system capability, effects of flaw morphology, and quantifying the human factors. Furthermore, reliability and POD have been reported alike in meaning but POD is not NDE reliability. POD is a subset of the reliability that consists of six phases: 1) samples selection using DOE, 2) NDE equipment setup and calibration, 3) System Measurement Evaluation (SME) including Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (Gage R and R) and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), 4) NDE system capability and electronic and physical saturation, 5) acquiring and fitting data to a model, and data analysis, and 6) POD estimation. This paper provides an overview of all major POD milestones for the last several decades and discuss rationale for using Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), MAPOD, SAPOD, and Bayesian statistics for studying controllable and non-controllable variables including human factors for estimating POD. Another objective is to list gaps between “hoped for” versus validated or fielded failed hardware.« less
  • While industry standards don't currently address the issue, one must be aware of the possible consequences of using ultraviolet light sources many times higher than the minimum specified intensity for FPI work. High UVA intensity, coupled with elevated specimen temperature and increased air flow, will fade a defect indication to a pale blue in minutes. Experimental work has shown that it is possible to reduce the brightness of a 0.060'' long crack indication by half within 3.5 minutes with commonly used intensities. Elevating the penetrant's temperature or increasing the airflow caused UVA-illuminated fluorescent dye to fade more quickly.