# Can you do quantum mechanics without Einstein?

## Abstract

The present form of quantum mechanics is based on the Copenhagen school of interpretation. Einstein did not belong to the Copenhagen school, because he did not believe in probabilistic interpretation of fundamental physical laws. This is the reason why we are still debating whether there is a more deterministic theory. One cause of this separation between Einstein and the Copenhagen school could have been that the Copenhagen physicists thoroughly ignored Einstein's main concern: the principle of relativity. Paul A. M. Dirac was the first one to realize this problem. Indeed, from 1927 to 1963, Paul A. M. Dirac published at least four papers to study the problem of making the uncertainty relation consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance. It is interesting to combine those papers by Dirac to make the uncertainty relation consistent with relativity. It is shown that the mathematics of two coupled oscillators enables us to carry out this job. We are then led to the question of whether the concept of localized probability distribution is consistent with Lorentz covariance.

- Authors:

- Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
- Department of Radiology, New York University, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

- Publication Date:

- OSTI Identifier:
- 21054913

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Resource Relation:
- Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 889; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 4. international conference on foundations of probability and physics, Vaexjoe (Sweden), 4-9 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2713454; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; DIRAC EQUATION; DISTRIBUTION; EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES; EINSTEIN FIELD EQUATIONS; HISTORICAL ASPECTS; LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS; OSCILLATORS; PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATION; PROBABILITY; QUANTUM MECHANICS; UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE

### Citation Formats

```
Kim, Y. S., and Noz, Marilyn E.
```*Can you do quantum mechanics without Einstein?*. United States: N. p., 2007.
Web. doi:10.1063/1.2713454.

```
Kim, Y. S., & Noz, Marilyn E.
```*Can you do quantum mechanics without Einstein?*. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2713454.

```
Kim, Y. S., and Noz, Marilyn E. Wed .
"Can you do quantum mechanics without Einstein?". United States.
doi:10.1063/1.2713454.
```

```
@article{osti_21054913,
```

title = {Can you do quantum mechanics without Einstein?},

author = {Kim, Y. S. and Noz, Marilyn E.},

abstractNote = {The present form of quantum mechanics is based on the Copenhagen school of interpretation. Einstein did not belong to the Copenhagen school, because he did not believe in probabilistic interpretation of fundamental physical laws. This is the reason why we are still debating whether there is a more deterministic theory. One cause of this separation between Einstein and the Copenhagen school could have been that the Copenhagen physicists thoroughly ignored Einstein's main concern: the principle of relativity. Paul A. M. Dirac was the first one to realize this problem. Indeed, from 1927 to 1963, Paul A. M. Dirac published at least four papers to study the problem of making the uncertainty relation consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance. It is interesting to combine those papers by Dirac to make the uncertainty relation consistent with relativity. It is shown that the mathematics of two coupled oscillators enables us to carry out this job. We are then led to the question of whether the concept of localized probability distribution is consistent with Lorentz covariance.},

doi = {10.1063/1.2713454},

journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},

number = 1,

volume = 889,

place = {United States},

year = {Wed Feb 21 00:00:00 EST 2007},

month = {Wed Feb 21 00:00:00 EST 2007}

}