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Title: Surface Gradient Integrated Profiler for X-ray and EUV Optics--Calibration of the rotational angle error of the rotary encoders

Abstract

A new ultraprecision profiler has been developed to measure for example asymmetric and aspheric profiles. The principle of our measuring method is that the normal vector at each point on the surface is determined by making the incident light beam on the mirror surface and the reflected beam at that point coincident. The gradient at each point is calculated from the normal vector, and the surface profile is then obtained by integrating the gradients. The measuring instrument was designed in accordance with the above principle for the measuring method and is called Surface Gradient Integrated Profiler (SGIP). In the design, four ultraprecision goniometers were applied to adjust the light axis for the normal vector measurement. These goniostages make it possible to attain an angular resolution of 0.018 {mu} radian by electrically dividing a pulse of the rotary encoder. The surface gradients are determined only by the rotational angle of goniometers. Thus in the measuring instrument, the most important factor is the accuracy of the normal vectors measured by the goniometers. To attain an accuracy of 0.1 {mu} radian, we developed a system for correcting the rotational angle error of the goniometers in which the trigonometric measuring method is utilized formore » geometrical angle determination.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Applied Research Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraju, 305-0801 (Japan)
  2. Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21052621
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 9. international conference on synchrotron radiation instrumentation, Daegu (Korea, Republic of), 28 May - 2 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2436165; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ACCIDENTS; ACCURACY; ASYMMETRY; BEAMS; CALIBRATION; DESIGN; ERRORS; GONIOMETERS; LIGHT SOURCES; MEASURING METHODS; MIRRORS; OPTICS; PULSES; RESOLUTION; SURFACES; VECTORS; VISIBLE RADIATION; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Higashi, Yasuo, Kume, Tatsuya, Enami, Kazuhiro, Ueno, Kenji, Mori, Yuzo, Takaie, Yuichi, Endo, Katsuyoshi, Yamauchi, Kazuto, Yamamura, Kazuya, and Sano, Yasuhisa. Surface Gradient Integrated Profiler for X-ray and EUV Optics--Calibration of the rotational angle error of the rotary encoders. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2436165.
Higashi, Yasuo, Kume, Tatsuya, Enami, Kazuhiro, Ueno, Kenji, Mori, Yuzo, Takaie, Yuichi, Endo, Katsuyoshi, Yamauchi, Kazuto, Yamamura, Kazuya, & Sano, Yasuhisa. Surface Gradient Integrated Profiler for X-ray and EUV Optics--Calibration of the rotational angle error of the rotary encoders. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436165.
Higashi, Yasuo, Kume, Tatsuya, Enami, Kazuhiro, Ueno, Kenji, Mori, Yuzo, Takaie, Yuichi, Endo, Katsuyoshi, Yamauchi, Kazuto, Yamamura, Kazuya, and Sano, Yasuhisa. Fri . "Surface Gradient Integrated Profiler for X-ray and EUV Optics--Calibration of the rotational angle error of the rotary encoders". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436165.
@article{osti_21052621,
title = {Surface Gradient Integrated Profiler for X-ray and EUV Optics--Calibration of the rotational angle error of the rotary encoders},
author = {Higashi, Yasuo and Kume, Tatsuya and Enami, Kazuhiro and Ueno, Kenji and Mori, Yuzo and Takaie, Yuichi and Endo, Katsuyoshi and Yamauchi, Kazuto and Yamamura, Kazuya and Sano, Yasuhisa},
abstractNote = {A new ultraprecision profiler has been developed to measure for example asymmetric and aspheric profiles. The principle of our measuring method is that the normal vector at each point on the surface is determined by making the incident light beam on the mirror surface and the reflected beam at that point coincident. The gradient at each point is calculated from the normal vector, and the surface profile is then obtained by integrating the gradients. The measuring instrument was designed in accordance with the above principle for the measuring method and is called Surface Gradient Integrated Profiler (SGIP). In the design, four ultraprecision goniometers were applied to adjust the light axis for the normal vector measurement. These goniostages make it possible to attain an angular resolution of 0.018 {mu} radian by electrically dividing a pulse of the rotary encoder. The surface gradients are determined only by the rotational angle of goniometers. Thus in the measuring instrument, the most important factor is the accuracy of the normal vectors measured by the goniometers. To attain an accuracy of 0.1 {mu} radian, we developed a system for correcting the rotational angle error of the goniometers in which the trigonometric measuring method is utilized for geometrical angle determination.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2436165},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • This work shows a method to characterize nearly flat reflective surfaces. Slope error on the mirror surface under the total reflection condition of x rays is measured by perfect crystal rocking curve profile widening. The experiment was performed using a conventional x-ray tube and a simple optical setup. The sensitivity was sufficient to detect at least a slope error of 7 {mu}rad, typical quality for synchrotron mirrors. It is shown that this technique can also be used to characterize roughness and curvature. The method proposed here is an alternative to the traditional techniques for surface characterization and has the advantagesmore » of simplicity, versatility and sensitivity, and the synchrotron mirror quality can be evaluated under similar conditions as those for the designed operation.« less
  • Electroformed grazing incidence mirrors were tested with x rays and were measured with an optical profiler. Their total effective areas are approx. >70% of the theoretical values both for 1.5- and 6.4-keV x rays. The half-power diameters (HPDs) are approx. <2 min of arc at 1.5 keV. Comparing the x-ray test result with the optical measurement, we set requirements of high-frequency roughness <14 A and a midfrequency roughness <70 A for a HPD < 1.5 min of arc at 7 keV. We also present a design of the mirror array telescope for high energies (MARTHE) which has a total effectivemore » area of approx.1000 cm/sup 2/ for 7-keV x rays.« less
  • A data acquisition technique and relevant program for suppression of one of the systematic effects, namely the ''ghost'' effect, of a second generation long trace profiler (LTP) is described. The ''ghost'' effect arises when there is an unavoidable cross-contamination of the LTP sample and reference signals into one another, leading to a systematic perturbation in the recorded interference patterns and, therefore, a systematic variation of the measured slope trace. Perturbations of about 1-2 {micro}rad have been observed with a cylindrically shaped X-ray mirror. Even stronger ''ghost'' effects show up in an LTP measurement with a mirror having a toroidal surfacemore » figure. The developed technique employs separate measurement of the ''ghost''-effect-related interference patterns in the sample and the reference arms and then subtraction of the ''ghost'' patterns from the sample and the reference interference patterns. The procedure preserves the advantage of simultaneously measuring the sample and reference signals. The effectiveness of the technique is illustrated with LTP metrology of a variety of X-ray mirrors.« less
  • This study analyzes synchrotron radiation heat loading effects on optical components of beamline BL12.0 for EUV interferometry and soft x-ray microscopy at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Newly developed indirect side-cooled beamline optics were considered, and the resulting surface distortion of mirrors and grating indicates that there is no significant degradation of beamline performance in spectral resolution or throughput. Also analyzed are the effects of heat loading on end-station components, such as Fresnel zone plates, transmission gratings, masks and membranes. Experimental results of heat loaded membranes are presented as well in this writing. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
  • No abstract prepared.