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Title: Fabrication and Evaluation of a Multilayer Laminar-Type Holographic Grating and Its Application to a High Efficiency Grazing Incidence Monochromator for the 1-8 keV Region

Abstract

A W/C multilayer laminar-type holographic grating was fabricated and its diffraction efficiency was evaluated in the 1-8 keV region. Taking advantage of its high diffraction efficiency a monochromator equipped with a multilayer varied-line-spacing plane grating was designed. The throughput of the monochromator based on the experimental diffraction efficiency of the multilayer grating and resolving power were calculated in comparison with those of a monochromator equipped with a Au coated grating.

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;  [2]; ;  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  3. NTT Advanced Technology Corp., 2-1-1, Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 163-0431 (Japan)
  4. Shimadzu Corp., 1 Nishinokyo-Kuwabaramachi, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, 614-0051 (Japan)
  5. Shimadzu Emit Co., Ltd., 2-5-23, Kitahama, Chuo-ku, Osaka 541-0041 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21052600
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 9. international conference on synchrotron radiation instrumentation, Daegu (Korea, Republic of), 28 May - 2 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2436144; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; CARBON; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DIFFRACTION GRATINGS; EFFICIENCY; FABRICATION; HOLOGRAPHY; INTERFACES; KEV RANGE; LAYERS; MONOCHROMATORS; TUNGSTEN; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Koike, Masato, Ishino, Masahiko, Imazono, Takashi, Heimann, Phil A., Gullikson, Eric H., Takenaka, Hisataka, Hatayama, Masatoshi, Sasai, Hiroyuki, and Sano, Kazuo. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Multilayer Laminar-Type Holographic Grating and Its Application to a High Efficiency Grazing Incidence Monochromator for the 1-8 keV Region. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2436144.
Koike, Masato, Ishino, Masahiko, Imazono, Takashi, Heimann, Phil A., Gullikson, Eric H., Takenaka, Hisataka, Hatayama, Masatoshi, Sasai, Hiroyuki, & Sano, Kazuo. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Multilayer Laminar-Type Holographic Grating and Its Application to a High Efficiency Grazing Incidence Monochromator for the 1-8 keV Region. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436144.
Koike, Masato, Ishino, Masahiko, Imazono, Takashi, Heimann, Phil A., Gullikson, Eric H., Takenaka, Hisataka, Hatayama, Masatoshi, Sasai, Hiroyuki, and Sano, Kazuo. Fri . "Fabrication and Evaluation of a Multilayer Laminar-Type Holographic Grating and Its Application to a High Efficiency Grazing Incidence Monochromator for the 1-8 keV Region". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436144.
@article{osti_21052600,
title = {Fabrication and Evaluation of a Multilayer Laminar-Type Holographic Grating and Its Application to a High Efficiency Grazing Incidence Monochromator for the 1-8 keV Region},
author = {Koike, Masato and Ishino, Masahiko and Imazono, Takashi and Heimann, Phil A. and Gullikson, Eric H. and Takenaka, Hisataka and Hatayama, Masatoshi and Sasai, Hiroyuki and Sano, Kazuo},
abstractNote = {A W/C multilayer laminar-type holographic grating was fabricated and its diffraction efficiency was evaluated in the 1-8 keV region. Taking advantage of its high diffraction efficiency a monochromator equipped with a multilayer varied-line-spacing plane grating was designed. The throughput of the monochromator based on the experimental diffraction efficiency of the multilayer grating and resolving power were calculated in comparison with those of a monochromator equipped with a Au coated grating.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2436144},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • A grazing incidence objective monochromator consisting of a spherical mirror, a varied-line-spacing plane grating with multilayered coating, a movable plane multilayered mirror, and a fixed exit slit for the 1-6 keV region has been designed. The included angle at the grating was chosen to satisfy the grating equation and extended Bragg condition simultaneously. The aberration was corrected by means of a hybrid design method. A spectral resolving power of {approx}600-{approx}6000 and a throughput of {approx}2%-{approx}40% is expected for the monochromator when used in an undulator beamline.
  • A multilayer laminar-type holographic grating having an average groove density of2400 lines/mmis designed and fabricated for use with a soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph covering the0.70-0.75 nm region. A varied-line-spaced groove pattern is generated by the use of an aspheric wavefront recording system, and laminar-type grooves are formed by a reactive ion-etching method.Mo/SiO2 multilayers optimized for the emission lines of Hf-M,Si-K, and W-M are deposited on one of the three designated areas on the grating surface in tandem. The measured first-order diffraction efficiencies at the respective centers of the areas are 18%-20%. The flat-field spectrograph equipped with the grating indicates a spectralmore » linewidth of8-14 eV for the emission spectra generated from electron-impact x-ray sources.« less
  • The holographic plane grating with grooves of a radial form and its imaging properties in a converging beam are analyzed. The results are applied to the design of conical diffraction monochromators for the 1-4 keV region, and their expected performances are examined by means of ray tracing in comparison with the corresponding ruled radial grating. Design examples show that, in a conical diffraction monochromator covering the energy region of 1-4 keV, the holographic grating thus designed exhibits a resolving power equivalent to that of the ruled radial grating.
  • W/C and Co/SiO2 multilayer gratings have been fabricated by depositing a multilayer coating on the surface of laminar-type holographic master gratings. The diffraction efficiency was measured by reflectometers in the energy region of 0.6-8.0 keV at synchrotron radiation facilities as well as with an x-ray diffractometer at 8.05 keV. The Co/SiO2 and W/C multilayer gratings showed peak diffraction efficiencies of 0.47 and 0.38 at 6.0 and 8.0 keV, respectively. To our knowledge, the peak efficiency of the W/C multilayer grating is the highest measured with hard x rays. The diffraction efficiency of the Co/SiO2 multilayer gratings was higher than thatmore » of the W/C multilayer grating in the energy range of 2.5-6.0 keV. However, it decreased significantly in the energy above the K absorption edge of Co(7.71 keV). For the Co/SiO2 multilayer grating, the measured diffraction efficiencies agreed with the calculated curves assuming a rms roughness of?1 nm.« less
  • The efficiency of an ion-etched laminar holographic grating was measured at near-normal incidence in the 14.5{endash}16.0-nm wavelength range. The grating had an electron-beam-evaporated Mo/Si multilayer coating matched to the grating groove depth. The efficiency peaked at 16.3{percent} in the first inside order at 15.12nm and 15.0{percent} in the first outside order at 14.94nm. These are believed to be the highest efficiencies obtained to date from a multilayer-coated laminar grating at near-normal incidence in the EUV ({lambda}{lt}30.0 nm). Zero and even orders were almost completely suppressed. The grating groove efficiency in the first order approached the theoretical limit of 40.5{percent}. {copyright}more » {ital 1997} {ital Optical Society of America}« less