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Title: Ultrafast X-ray Imaging of Fuel Sprays

Abstract

Detailed analysis of fuel sprays has been well recognized as an important step for optimizing the operation of internal combustion engines to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Ultrafast radiographic and tomographic techniques have been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzles of direct-injection diesel and gasoline injectors. The measurement was made using x-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution on the order of 1 {mu}s. Furthermore, an accurate 3-dimensional fuel-density distribution, in the form of fuel volume fraction, was obtained by the time-resolved computed tomography. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date. With high-energy and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source, propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the interior of an injection nozzle through a 3-mm-thick steel with a 10-{mu}s temporal resolution, which is virtually impossible by any other means.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21049314
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 9. international conference on synchrotron radiation instrumentation, Daegu (Korea, Republic of), 28 May - 2 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2436357; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ABSORPTION; ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DENSITY; DISTRIBUTION; EFFICIENCY; EMISSION; GASOLINE; IMAGES; INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; MONOCHROMATIC RADIATION; NOZZLES; OPERATION; OPTIMIZATION; SPRAYS; STEELS; TIME RESOLUTION; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Wang Jin. Ultrafast X-ray Imaging of Fuel Sprays. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2436357.
Wang Jin. Ultrafast X-ray Imaging of Fuel Sprays. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436357.
Wang Jin. Fri . "Ultrafast X-ray Imaging of Fuel Sprays". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436357.
@article{osti_21049314,
title = {Ultrafast X-ray Imaging of Fuel Sprays},
author = {Wang Jin},
abstractNote = {Detailed analysis of fuel sprays has been well recognized as an important step for optimizing the operation of internal combustion engines to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Ultrafast radiographic and tomographic techniques have been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzles of direct-injection diesel and gasoline injectors. The measurement was made using x-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution on the order of 1 {mu}s. Furthermore, an accurate 3-dimensional fuel-density distribution, in the form of fuel volume fraction, was obtained by the time-resolved computed tomography. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date. With high-energy and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source, propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the interior of an injection nozzle through a 3-mm-thick steel with a 10-{mu}s temporal resolution, which is virtually impossible by any other means.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2436357},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Detailed analysis of fuel sprays has been well recognized as an important step for optimizing the operation of internal combustion engines to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Ultrafast radiographic and tomographic techniques have been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzles of direct-injection diesel and gasoline injectors. The measurement was made using x-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution on the order of 1 {mu}s. Furthermore, an accurate 3-dimensional fuel-density distribution, in the form of fuel volume fraction, was obtained by themore » time-resolved computed tomography. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date. With high-energy and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source, propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the interior of an injection nozzle through a 3-mm-thick steel with a 10-{mu}s temporal resolution, which is virtually impossible by any other means.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • X-ray in-line phase-contrast imaging along with a single-image phase retrieval reconstruction was used to visualize the near-nozzle breakup of optically dense water jets atomized by a high-speed, annular air flow. The influence of the atomizing air on water mass distribution was investigated to reveal the complex air/liquid interactions at various breakup stages. Unlike low-Weber-number jets, the breakup of high-Weber-number jets can occur in the liquid core, which causes sudden decreases in liquid volume fraction.
  • Flash x-ray radiography is used to capture quantitative, two-dimensional line-of-sight averaged, single-shot liquid distribution measurements in impinging jet sprays. The accuracy of utilizing broadband x-ray radiation from compact flash tube sources is investigated for a range of conditions by comparing the data with radiographic high-speed measurements from a narrowband, high-intensity synchrotron x-ray facility at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. The path length of the liquid jets is varied to evaluate the effects of energy dependent x-ray attenuation, also known as spectral beam hardening. The spatial liquid distributions from flash x-ray and synchrotron-based radiography are compared, alongmore » with spectral characteristics using Taylor’s hypothesis. The results indicate that quantitative, single-shot imaging of liquid distributions can be achieved using broadband x-ray sources with nanosecond temporal resolution. Practical considerations for optimizing the imaging system performance are discussed, including the coupled effects of x-ray bandwidth, contrast, sensitivity, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and spectral beam hardening.« less