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Title: Microstructural Changes upon Milling of Graphite in Water and Subsequent MWCNT Formation During High Temperature Annealing

Abstract

The method of preparing carbon nanotube (CNT) by milling of graphite particles in water followed by high temperature annealing is proposed and the mechanism discussed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) line broadening analysis reveal that cleavage of the graphite particles occurs preferentially along the out-of-plane {pi} bonds. Carbon K-edge near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the milled graphite shows an increased sp3 character of the C=C bonds, but no major bonds rupture in the graphene sheets. The annealing at 1400 deg. C for 4 h of the milled graphite in argon results in formation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes accompanied with a number of coiled and twisted stacks of graphene sheets. The increased structural disorder of the milled graphite and presence of iron contaminations facilitate the rolling up of the cleaved graphene sheets during annealing.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. College of Health and Science, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC 1797 (Australia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21049298
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 9. international conference on synchrotron radiation instrumentation, Daegu (Korea, Republic of), 28 May - 2 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2436335; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; ANNEALING; ARGON; CHEMICAL BONDS; CLEAVAGE; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; FINE STRUCTURE; GRAPHITE; IRON; LINE BROADENING; MILLING; NANOTUBES; PARTICLES; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Milev, Adriyan, Tran, Nguyen, Kamali Kannangara, G. S., and Wilson, Michael. Microstructural Changes upon Milling of Graphite in Water and Subsequent MWCNT Formation During High Temperature Annealing. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2436335.
Milev, Adriyan, Tran, Nguyen, Kamali Kannangara, G. S., & Wilson, Michael. Microstructural Changes upon Milling of Graphite in Water and Subsequent MWCNT Formation During High Temperature Annealing. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436335.
Milev, Adriyan, Tran, Nguyen, Kamali Kannangara, G. S., and Wilson, Michael. Fri . "Microstructural Changes upon Milling of Graphite in Water and Subsequent MWCNT Formation During High Temperature Annealing". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436335.
@article{osti_21049298,
title = {Microstructural Changes upon Milling of Graphite in Water and Subsequent MWCNT Formation During High Temperature Annealing},
author = {Milev, Adriyan and Tran, Nguyen and Kamali Kannangara, G. S. and Wilson, Michael},
abstractNote = {The method of preparing carbon nanotube (CNT) by milling of graphite particles in water followed by high temperature annealing is proposed and the mechanism discussed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) line broadening analysis reveal that cleavage of the graphite particles occurs preferentially along the out-of-plane {pi} bonds. Carbon K-edge near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the milled graphite shows an increased sp3 character of the C=C bonds, but no major bonds rupture in the graphene sheets. The annealing at 1400 deg. C for 4 h of the milled graphite in argon results in formation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes accompanied with a number of coiled and twisted stacks of graphene sheets. The increased structural disorder of the milled graphite and presence of iron contaminations facilitate the rolling up of the cleaved graphene sheets during annealing.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2436335},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}