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Title: Soft X-ray Zone Plate Microscopy to 10 nm Resolution with XM-1 at the ALS

Abstract

Soft x-ray zone plate microscopy provides a unique combination of capabilities that complement those of electron and scanning probe microscopies. Tremendous efforts are taken worldwide to achieve sub-10 nm resolution, which will permit extension of x-ray microscopy to a broader range of nanosciences and nanotechnologies. In this paper, the overlay nanofabrication technique is described, which permits zone width of 15 nm and below to be fabricated. The fabrication results of 12 nm zone plates, and the stacking of identical zone patterns for higher aspect ratio, are discussed.

Authors:
;  [1]; ; ;  [2]
  1. University of California, Berkeley, California, CA 94720 (United States)
  2. Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, CA 94720 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21049255
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 9. international conference on synchrotron radiation instrumentation, Daegu (Korea, Republic of), 28 May - 2 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2436295; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE; ASPECT RATIO; ELECTRONS; MICROSCOPY; NANOSTRUCTURES; PLATES; RESOLUTION; SOFT X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Chao Weilun, Attwood, David T., Anderson, Erik H., Harteneck, Bruce D., and Liddle, J. Alexander. Soft X-ray Zone Plate Microscopy to 10 nm Resolution with XM-1 at the ALS. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2436295.
Chao Weilun, Attwood, David T., Anderson, Erik H., Harteneck, Bruce D., & Liddle, J. Alexander. Soft X-ray Zone Plate Microscopy to 10 nm Resolution with XM-1 at the ALS. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436295.
Chao Weilun, Attwood, David T., Anderson, Erik H., Harteneck, Bruce D., and Liddle, J. Alexander. Fri . "Soft X-ray Zone Plate Microscopy to 10 nm Resolution with XM-1 at the ALS". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436295.
@article{osti_21049255,
title = {Soft X-ray Zone Plate Microscopy to 10 nm Resolution with XM-1 at the ALS},
author = {Chao Weilun and Attwood, David T. and Anderson, Erik H. and Harteneck, Bruce D. and Liddle, J. Alexander},
abstractNote = {Soft x-ray zone plate microscopy provides a unique combination of capabilities that complement those of electron and scanning probe microscopies. Tremendous efforts are taken worldwide to achieve sub-10 nm resolution, which will permit extension of x-ray microscopy to a broader range of nanosciences and nanotechnologies. In this paper, the overlay nanofabrication technique is described, which permits zone width of 15 nm and below to be fabricated. The fabrication results of 12 nm zone plates, and the stacking of identical zone patterns for higher aspect ratio, are discussed.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2436295},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.
  • No abstract prepared.
  • A hard x-ray transmission microscope with 30 nm spatial resolution has been developed employing the third diffraction order of a zone plate objective. The microscope utilizes a capillary type condenser with suitable surface figure to generate a hollow cone illumination which is matched in illumination range to the numerical aperture of the third order diffraction of a zone plate with an outmost zone width of 50 nm. Using a test sample of a 150 nm thick gold spoke pattern with finest half-pitch of 30 nm, the authors obtained x-ray images with 30 nm resolution at 8 keV x-ray energy.
  • Multi-keV X-ray microscopy has been particularly successful in bridging the resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy. However, resolutions below 20 nm are still considered challenging, as high throughput direct imaging methods are limited by the availability of suitable optical elements. In order to bridge this gap, we present a new type of Fresnel zone plate lenses aimed at the sub-20 and the sub-10 nm resolution range. By extending the concept of double-sided zone plate stacking, we demonstrate the doubling of the effective line density and thus the resolution and provide large aperture, single- chip optical devices with 15 andmore » 7 nm smallest zone widths. The detailed characterization of these lenses shows excellent optical properties with focal spots down to 7.8 nm. Furthermore, beyond wave front characterization, the zone plates also excel in typical imaging scenarios, verifying their resolution close to their diffraction limited optical performance.« less
  • The Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) operates a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) in the soft x-ray photon energy range with an energy resolution up to E/{Delta}E = 10{sup 4}. An approach to achieve ultrahigh spatial resolution with conventional, standard zone plate optics is to employ higher orders of diffraction of the zone plate objective. In this paper, we demonstrate that 11-nm lines and spaces of a multilayer test structure are clearly resolved by the x-ray microscope using the third order of diffraction of a zone plate objective with 20-nm outermost zone width. The disadvantage of high-order imaging is an about one ordermore » of magnitude lower diffraction efficiency of the used zone plates employed in the third order compared to the first order of diffraction. In addition, the measured background signal in the TXM images is no longer negligible. Therefore, we worked on the fabrication of zone plates with sub-20-nm outermost zone width to increase the spatial resolution in the first order of diffraction. A new high-resolution 100-keV e-beam lithography system from VISTEC, which was recently installed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, makes these developments possible. Initial results on zone plates with an outermost zone width down to 15 nm exposed with the new e-beam system are presented. Furthermore, the contrast transfer function of the transmission x-ray microscope operating in partial coherence mode is measured by using the first and third diffraction order of the zone plate objective.« less