skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Impact of Endorectal Balloon in the Dosimetry of Prostate and Surrounding Tissues in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with IMRT

Abstract

The dosimetric effect of endorectal balloon repositioning or failure was assessed in 10 prostate cancer patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Three extreme clinical scenarios were simulated by placing the balloon in the most superior and inferior positions within the rectum and by removing the balloon. Treatment planning was performed by obtaining a computed tomography (CT) image with the balloon in the most superior position (plan 1). Subsequently, the isodose lines of plan 1 were superpositioned over the anatomy of 2 other CTs, one obtained with the balloon in the most inferior position and another without the balloon (plans 2 and 3, respectively). Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the prostate and surrounding tissues were generated and compared for all 3 plans. The prescribed radiation dose to the prostate and seminal vesicles was 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Balloon repositioning resulted in significant changes only for the seminal vesicles, where the minimum doses decreased from 70.39 to 61.58 Gy, and the percent volume below 70 Gy increased from 1.62% to 8.39%. Balloon failure resulted in significant decreases in mean and minimum doses for prostate from 74.36 to 72.84 Gy and 67.62 to 50.96 Gy, respectively. Similar decreases in the meanmore » and minimum doses were also observed for seminal vesicles from 74.21 to 64.43 Gy and 70.39 to 41.74 Gy, respectively. Balloon repositioning did not affect normal tissue doses, while balloon failure significantly decreased the upper rectum mean doses from 30.79 to 19.38 Gy. This study demonstrates that repositioning of the endorectal balloon results in increased dose inhomogeneity for seminal vesicles, while balloon failure causes significant prostate and seminal vesicle underdosing without overdosing normal tissues.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States), E-mail: mvlachaki@med.wayne.edu
  2. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  3. University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21045984
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Dosimetry; Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.007; PII: S0958-3947(07)00051-9; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ANATOMY; CARCINOMAS; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DOSIMETRY; FAILURES; PATIENTS; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; RECTUM

Citation Formats

Vlachaki, Maria T., Teslow, Terrance N., and Ahmad, Salahuddin. Impact of Endorectal Balloon in the Dosimetry of Prostate and Surrounding Tissues in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with IMRT. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.007.
Vlachaki, Maria T., Teslow, Terrance N., & Ahmad, Salahuddin. Impact of Endorectal Balloon in the Dosimetry of Prostate and Surrounding Tissues in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with IMRT. United States. doi:10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.007.
Vlachaki, Maria T., Teslow, Terrance N., and Ahmad, Salahuddin. Mon . "Impact of Endorectal Balloon in the Dosimetry of Prostate and Surrounding Tissues in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with IMRT". United States. doi:10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.007.
@article{osti_21045984,
title = {Impact of Endorectal Balloon in the Dosimetry of Prostate and Surrounding Tissues in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with IMRT},
author = {Vlachaki, Maria T. and Teslow, Terrance N. and Ahmad, Salahuddin},
abstractNote = {The dosimetric effect of endorectal balloon repositioning or failure was assessed in 10 prostate cancer patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Three extreme clinical scenarios were simulated by placing the balloon in the most superior and inferior positions within the rectum and by removing the balloon. Treatment planning was performed by obtaining a computed tomography (CT) image with the balloon in the most superior position (plan 1). Subsequently, the isodose lines of plan 1 were superpositioned over the anatomy of 2 other CTs, one obtained with the balloon in the most inferior position and another without the balloon (plans 2 and 3, respectively). Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the prostate and surrounding tissues were generated and compared for all 3 plans. The prescribed radiation dose to the prostate and seminal vesicles was 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Balloon repositioning resulted in significant changes only for the seminal vesicles, where the minimum doses decreased from 70.39 to 61.58 Gy, and the percent volume below 70 Gy increased from 1.62% to 8.39%. Balloon failure resulted in significant decreases in mean and minimum doses for prostate from 74.36 to 72.84 Gy and 67.62 to 50.96 Gy, respectively. Similar decreases in the mean and minimum doses were also observed for seminal vesicles from 74.21 to 64.43 Gy and 70.39 to 41.74 Gy, respectively. Balloon repositioning did not affect normal tissue doses, while balloon failure significantly decreased the upper rectum mean doses from 30.79 to 19.38 Gy. This study demonstrates that repositioning of the endorectal balloon results in increased dose inhomogeneity for seminal vesicles, while balloon failure causes significant prostate and seminal vesicle underdosing without overdosing normal tissues.},
doi = {10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.007},
journal = {Medical Dosimetry},
number = 4,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Purpose: We developed an endorectal balloon for in-vivo rectal dosimetry in two-dimensions, and evaluated its dosimetric properties for the radiation treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: The endorectal balloon for in-vivo rectal dosimetry is equipped with a radiochromic film so that two-dimensional dose distribution can be measured in the rectal wall. The film is unrolled as the balloon is inflated, and it is rolled as the balloon is deflated. The outer diameter of the balloon is about 14 mm before inflating it, but its outer diameter can be increased up to about 50 mm after inflating it with 80 ml distilledmore » water. The size of the film is 80(L) x 64(W) mm2, so large as to measure a dose distribution of an anterior half of the rectal wall. After it was inserted into a fabricated rectal phantom, the phantom was scanned by a CT scanner and 5 Gy was delivered to a target inside the phantom with a 15 MV photon beam in AP direction. Finally, the dose distribution measured in the endorectal balloon was compared with that of the treatment plan. Results: The two dose distributions were compared each other in the parallel and the perpendicular directions along an axis of the balloon. The two dose profiles analyzed from the radiochromic film agreed well with the plan within 3% for 15 MV photon beam. Conclusion: An endorectal balloon for two-dimensional in-vivo rectal dosimetry was developed and its dosimetric effectiveness was evaluated for the radiation treatment of prostate cancer. The measured dose distributions showed good agreement with the plans.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate intrafraction prostate and patient motion during different radiation therapy treatments as a function of treatment time; included were prostate patients with an endorectal balloon (ERB). Margins accounting for setup uncertainties and intrafraction motion were determined. Methods and Materials: The study included 17 patients undergoing prostate cancer radiation therapy. All patients received 3 fiducial gold markers implanted in the prostate and were then immobilized in the supine position with a knee support and treated with an ERB. Twelve patients with intermediate risk for pelvic lymph node metastases received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 5 patients at lowmore » risk received a 4-field box treatment. After setup based on skin marks, patients were imaged with a stereoscopic imaging system. If the marker displacement exceeded a 3-mm tolerance relative to planning computed tomography, patients were shifted and verification images were taken. All patients underwent additional imaging after treatment; IMRT patients also received additional imaging at halftime of treatment. Prostate and bone drifts were evaluated as a function of treatment time for more than 600 fractions, and margins were extracted. Results: Patient motion evaluated by bone match was strongly patient dependent but in general was smallest in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Prostate drifts were less patient dependent, showing an increase with treatment time in the SI and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. In the lateral (LAT) direction, the prostate stayed rather stable. Mean treatment times were 5.5 minutes for 4-field box, 10 minutes for 5-field boost IMRT, and 15 minutes or more for 9-field boost and 9-field pelvic IMRT treatments. Margins resulted in 2.2 mm, 3.9 mm, and 4.3 mm for 4-field box; 3.7 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.6 mm for 5-field boost IMRT; 2.3 mm, 3.9 mm, and 6.2 mm for 9-field boost IMRT; and 4.2 mm, 5.1 mm, and 6.6 mm for 9-field pelvic IMRT in the LAT, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Conclusion: Intrafraction prostate and patient displacement increased with treatment time, showing different behaviors for the single directions of movement. Repositioning of the patients during long treatments or shorter treatment times will be necessary to further reduce the treatment margin.« less
  • Purpose: To observe the recovery of saliva output and effect on xerostomia grade after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with or without contralateral submandibular gland (cSMG) sparing and to assess the impact of salivary gland dosimetry on this recovery among patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and May 2008, 52 patients with head-and-neck cancer received definitive (n = 5 patients) and postoperative (n = 47 patients) IMRT at our institution, with at least one parotid gland spared. Of these patients, 26 patients with a low risk of recurrence in the cSMG region underwent IMRT and had their cSMGsmore » spared (cSMG-sparing group). The remaining 26 high-risk patients had no cSMGs spared (cSMG-unspared group). Xerostomia grades and salivary flow rates were monitored at five time points (before IMRT and at 2, 6, 12, and 18 months after IMRT). Results: Average mean doses and mean volumes receiving 30 Gy (V30) of the cSMGs were lower in the cSMG-sparing group than in the cSMG-unspared group (mean dose, 20.4 Gy vs. 57.4 Gy; mean V30, 14.7% vs. 99.8%, respectively). Xerostomia grades at 2 and 6 months post-IMRT were also significantly lower among patients in the cSMG-sparing group than in the cSMG-unspared group, but differences were not significant at 12 and 18 months after IMRT. Patients in the cSMG-sparing group had significantly better mean unstimulated salivary flow rates at each time point post- IMRT as well as better mean stimulated salivary flow rates at 2 months post-IMRT. Conclusions: Recovery of saliva output and grade of xerostomia post-IMRT in patients whose cSMGs were spared were much better than in patients whose cSMGs were not spared. The influence of the mean doses to the cSMG and parotid gland on the recovery of saliva output was equivalent to that of the mean V30 to the glands.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the utility of endorectal coil magenetic resonance imaging (eMRI) in predicting biochemical relapse in prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2008, 279 men with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer underwent eMRI of their prostate before receiving brachytherapy and supplemental intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Endorectal coil MRI was performed before treatment and retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists experienced in genitourinary MRI. Image-based variables, including tumor diameter, location, number of sextants involved, and the presence of extracapsular extension (ECE), were incorporated with other established clinical variables to predict biochemical control outcomes.more » The median follow-up was 49 months (range, 1-13 years). Results: The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival for the cohort was 92%. Clinical findings predicting recurrence on univariate analysis included Gleason score (hazard ratio [HR] 3.6, p = 0.001), PSA (HR 1.04, p = 0.005), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (HR 4.1, p = 0.002). Clinical T stage and the use of androgen deprivation therapy were not correlated with biochemical failure. Imaging findings on univariate analysis associated with relapse included ECE on MRI (HR 3.79, p = 0.003), tumor size (HR 2.58, p = 0.04), and T stage (HR 1.71, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis incorporating both clinical and imaging findings, only ECE on MRI and Gleason score were independent predictors of recurrence. Conclusions: Pretreatment eMRI findings predict for biochemical recurrence in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Gleason score and the presence of ECE on MRI were the only significant predictors of biochemical relapse in this group of patients.« less
  • Purpose: To present a practical image-guided method to position an endorectal balloon that improves in vivo thermoluminiscent dosimeter (TLD) measurements of rectal doses in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods: TLDs were combined with endorectal balloons to measure dose at the anterior rectal wall during daily proton treatment delivery. Radiopaque metallic markers were employed as surrogates for balloon position reproducibility in rotation and translation. The markers were utilized to guide the balloon orientation during daily treatment employing orthogonal x-ray image-guided patient positioning. TLDs were placed at the 12 o'clock position on the anterior balloon surface at the midprostatic plane. Markersmore » were placed at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions on the balloon to align it with respect to the planned orientation. The balloon rotation along its stem axis, referred to as roll, causes TLD displacement along the anterior-posterior direction. The magnitude of TLD displacement is revealed by the separation distance between markers at opposite sides of the balloon on sagittal x-ray images. Results: A total of 81 in vivo TLD measurements were performed on six patients. Eighty-three percent of all measurements (65 TLD readings) were within +5% and -10% of the planning dose with a mean of -2.1% and a standard deviation of 3.5%. Examination of marker positions with in-room x-ray images of measured doses between -10% and -20% of the planned dose revealed a strong correlation between balloon roll and TLD displacement posteriorly from the planned position. The magnitude of the roll was confirmed by separations of 10-20 mm between the markers which could be corrected by manually adjusting the balloon position and verified by a repeat x-ray image prior to proton delivery. This approach could properly correct the balloon roll, resulting in TLD positioning within 2 mm along the anterior-posterior direction. Conclusions: Our results show that image-guided TLD-based in vivo dosimetry for rectal dose verification can be perfomed reliably and reproducibly for proton therapy in prostate cancer.« less