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Title: Dosimetric Comparison Between 2-Dimensional Radiation Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Treatment of Advanced T-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: To Treat Less or More in the Planning Organ-At-Risk Volume of the Brainstem and Spinal Cord

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the deficiencies in target coverage and organ protection of 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2DRT) in the treatment of advanced T-stage (T3-4) nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and assess the extent of improvement that could be achieved with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with special reference to of the dose to the planning organ-at-risk volume (PRV) of the brainstem and spinal cord. A dosimetric study was performed on 10 patients with advanced T-stage (T3-4 and N0-2) NPC. Computer tomography (CT) images of 2.5-mm slice thickness of the head and neck were acquired with the patient immobilized in semi-extended-head position. A 2D plan based on Ho's technique, and an IMRT plan based on a 7-coplanar portals arrangement, were established for each patient. 2DRT was planned with the field borders and shielding drawn on the simulator radiograph with reference to bony landmarks, digitized, and entered into a planning computer for reconstruction of the 3D dose distribution. The 2DRT and IMRT treatment plans were evaluated and compared with respect to the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the targets and the organs-at-risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). With IMRT, the dose coverage of the targetmore » was superior to that of 2DRT. The mean minimum dose of the GTV and PTV were increased from 33.7 Gy (2DRT) to 62.6 Gy (IMRT), and 11.9 Gy (2DRT) to 47.8 Gy (IMRT), respectively. The D{sub 95} of the GTV and PTV were also increased from 57.1 Gy (2DRT) to 67 Gy (IMRT), and 45 Gy (2DRT) to 63.6 Gy (IMRT), respectively. The TCP was substantially increased to 78.5% in IMRT. Better protection of the critical normal organs was also achieved with IMRT. The mean maximum dose delivered to the brainstem and spinal cord were reduced significantly from 61.8 Gy (2DRT) to 52.8 Gy (IMRT) and 56 Gy (2DRT) to 43.6 Gy (IMRT), respectively, which were within the conventional dose limits of 54 Gy for brainstem and of 45 Gy for spinal cord. The mean maximum doses deposited on the PRV of the brainstem and spinal cord were 60.7 Gy and 51.6 Gy respectively, which were above the conventional dose limits. For the chiasm, the mean dose maximum and the dose to 5% of its volume were reduced from 64.3 Gy (2DRT) to 53.7 Gy (IMRT) and from 62.8 Gy (2DRT) to 48.7 Gy (IMRT), respectively, and the corresponding NTCP was reduced from 18.4% to 2.1%. For the temporal lobes, the mean dose to 10% of its volume (about 4.6 cc) was reduced from 63.8 Gy (2DRT) to 55.4 Gy (IMRT) and the NTCP was decreased from 11.7% to 3.4%. The therapeutic ratio for T3-4 NPC tumors can be significantly improved with IMRT treatment technique due to improvement both in target coverage and the sparing of the critical normal organ. Although the maximum doses delivered to the brainstem and spinal cord in IMRT can be kept at or below their conventional dose limits, the maximum doses deposited on the PRV often exceed these limits due to the close proximity between the target and OARs. In other words, ideal dosimetric considerations cannot be fulfilled in IMRT planning for T3-4 NPC tumors. A compromise of the maximal dose limit to the PRV of the brainstem and spinal cord would need be accepted if dose coverage to the targets is not to be unacceptably compromised. Dosimetric comparison with 2DRT plans show that these dose limits to PRV were also frequently exceeded in 2DRT plans for locally advanced NPC. A dedicated retrospective study on the incidence of clinical injury to neurological organs in a large series of patients with T3-4 NPC treated by 2DRT may provide useful reference data in exploring how far the PRV dose constraints may be relaxed, to maximize the target coverage without compromising the normal organ function.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ; ;  [3]
  1. Department of Clinical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China), E-mail: S033928@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk
  2. Department of Clinical Oncology, Sanatorium Hospital, Hong Kong (China)
  3. Department of Clinical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21045981
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Dosimetry; Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.006; PII: S0958-3947(07)00048-9; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; CARCINOMAS; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DOSE LIMITS; HEAD; IMAGES; INJURIES; NECK; ORGANS; PATIENTS; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION HAZARDS; RADIOTHERAPY; SPINAL CORD

Citation Formats

Chau, Ricky, Teo, Peter, Kam, Michael, Leung, S.F., Cheung, K.Y., and Chan, Anthony. Dosimetric Comparison Between 2-Dimensional Radiation Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Treatment of Advanced T-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: To Treat Less or More in the Planning Organ-At-Risk Volume of the Brainstem and Spinal Cord. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.006.
Chau, Ricky, Teo, Peter, Kam, Michael, Leung, S.F., Cheung, K.Y., & Chan, Anthony. Dosimetric Comparison Between 2-Dimensional Radiation Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Treatment of Advanced T-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: To Treat Less or More in the Planning Organ-At-Risk Volume of the Brainstem and Spinal Cord. United States. doi:10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.006.
Chau, Ricky, Teo, Peter, Kam, Michael, Leung, S.F., Cheung, K.Y., and Chan, Anthony. Mon . "Dosimetric Comparison Between 2-Dimensional Radiation Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Treatment of Advanced T-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: To Treat Less or More in the Planning Organ-At-Risk Volume of the Brainstem and Spinal Cord". United States. doi:10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.006.
@article{osti_21045981,
title = {Dosimetric Comparison Between 2-Dimensional Radiation Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Treatment of Advanced T-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: To Treat Less or More in the Planning Organ-At-Risk Volume of the Brainstem and Spinal Cord},
author = {Chau, Ricky and Teo, Peter and Kam, Michael and Leung, S.F. and Cheung, K.Y. and Chan, Anthony},
abstractNote = {The aim of this study is to evaluate the deficiencies in target coverage and organ protection of 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2DRT) in the treatment of advanced T-stage (T3-4) nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and assess the extent of improvement that could be achieved with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with special reference to of the dose to the planning organ-at-risk volume (PRV) of the brainstem and spinal cord. A dosimetric study was performed on 10 patients with advanced T-stage (T3-4 and N0-2) NPC. Computer tomography (CT) images of 2.5-mm slice thickness of the head and neck were acquired with the patient immobilized in semi-extended-head position. A 2D plan based on Ho's technique, and an IMRT plan based on a 7-coplanar portals arrangement, were established for each patient. 2DRT was planned with the field borders and shielding drawn on the simulator radiograph with reference to bony landmarks, digitized, and entered into a planning computer for reconstruction of the 3D dose distribution. The 2DRT and IMRT treatment plans were evaluated and compared with respect to the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the targets and the organs-at-risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). With IMRT, the dose coverage of the target was superior to that of 2DRT. The mean minimum dose of the GTV and PTV were increased from 33.7 Gy (2DRT) to 62.6 Gy (IMRT), and 11.9 Gy (2DRT) to 47.8 Gy (IMRT), respectively. The D{sub 95} of the GTV and PTV were also increased from 57.1 Gy (2DRT) to 67 Gy (IMRT), and 45 Gy (2DRT) to 63.6 Gy (IMRT), respectively. The TCP was substantially increased to 78.5% in IMRT. Better protection of the critical normal organs was also achieved with IMRT. The mean maximum dose delivered to the brainstem and spinal cord were reduced significantly from 61.8 Gy (2DRT) to 52.8 Gy (IMRT) and 56 Gy (2DRT) to 43.6 Gy (IMRT), respectively, which were within the conventional dose limits of 54 Gy for brainstem and of 45 Gy for spinal cord. The mean maximum doses deposited on the PRV of the brainstem and spinal cord were 60.7 Gy and 51.6 Gy respectively, which were above the conventional dose limits. For the chiasm, the mean dose maximum and the dose to 5% of its volume were reduced from 64.3 Gy (2DRT) to 53.7 Gy (IMRT) and from 62.8 Gy (2DRT) to 48.7 Gy (IMRT), respectively, and the corresponding NTCP was reduced from 18.4% to 2.1%. For the temporal lobes, the mean dose to 10% of its volume (about 4.6 cc) was reduced from 63.8 Gy (2DRT) to 55.4 Gy (IMRT) and the NTCP was decreased from 11.7% to 3.4%. The therapeutic ratio for T3-4 NPC tumors can be significantly improved with IMRT treatment technique due to improvement both in target coverage and the sparing of the critical normal organ. Although the maximum doses delivered to the brainstem and spinal cord in IMRT can be kept at or below their conventional dose limits, the maximum doses deposited on the PRV often exceed these limits due to the close proximity between the target and OARs. In other words, ideal dosimetric considerations cannot be fulfilled in IMRT planning for T3-4 NPC tumors. A compromise of the maximal dose limit to the PRV of the brainstem and spinal cord would need be accepted if dose coverage to the targets is not to be unacceptably compromised. Dosimetric comparison with 2DRT plans show that these dose limits to PRV were also frequently exceeded in 2DRT plans for locally advanced NPC. A dedicated retrospective study on the incidence of clinical injury to neurological organs in a large series of patients with T3-4 NPC treated by 2DRT may provide useful reference data in exploring how far the PRV dose constraints may be relaxed, to maximize the target coverage without compromising the normal organ function.},
doi = {10.1016/j.meddos.2007.02.006},
journal = {Medical Dosimetry},
number = 4,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Purpose: To compare the plan quality and performance of Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB) Treatment plan between Seven field (7F) and Nine field(9F) Intensity Modulated Radiotherapies and Single Arc (SA) and Dual Arc (DA) Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy( VMAT). Methods: Retrospective planning study of 16 patients treated in Elekta Synergy Platform (mlci2) by 9F-IMRT were replanned with 7F-IMRT, Single Arc VMAT and Dual Arc VMAT using CMS, Monaco Treatment Planning System (TPS) with Monte Carlo simulation. Target delineation done as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Protocols (RTOG 0225&0615). Dose Prescribed as 70Gy to Planning Target Volumes (PTV70) and 61Gy to PTV61 inmore » 33 fraction as a SIB technique. Conformity Index(CI), Homogeneity Index(HI) were used as analysis parameter for Target Volumes as well as Mean dose and Max dose for Organ at Risk(OAR,s).Treatment Delivery Time(min), Monitor unit per fraction (MU/fraction), Patient specific quality assurance were also analysed. Results: A Poor dose coverage and Conformity index (CI) was observed in PTV70 by 7F-IMRT among other techniques. SA-VMAT achieved poor dose coverage in PTV61. No statistical significance difference observed in OAR,s except Spinal cord (P= 0.03) and Right optic nerve (P=0.03). DA-VMAT achieved superior target coverage, higher CI (P =0.02) and Better HI (P=0.03) for PTV70 other techniques (7F-IMRT/9F-IMRT/SA-VMAT). A better dose spare for Parotid glands and spinal cord were seen in DA-VMAT. The average treatment delivery time were 5.82mins, 6.72mins, 3.24mins, 4.3mins for 7F-IMRT, 9F-IMRT, SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT respectively. Significance difference Observed in MU/fr (P <0.001) and Patient quality assurance pass rate were >95% (Gamma analysis (Γ3mm, 3%). Conclusion: DA-VAMT showed better target dose coverage and achieved better or equal performance in sparing OARs among other techniques. SA-VMAT offered least Treatment Time than other techniques but achieved poor target coverage. DA-VMAT offered shorter delivery time than 7F-IMRT and 9F-IMRT without compromising the plan quality.« less
  • Purpose: To develop and validate adaptive dose-constraint templates in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for advanced T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Method and Materials: Dose-volume histograms of clinically approved plans for 20 patients with advanced T-stage NPC were analyzed, and the pattern of distribution in relation to the degree of overlap between targets and organs at risk (OARs) was explored. An adaptive dose constraint template (ADCT) was developed based on the degree of overlap. Another set of 10 patients with advanced T-stage NPC was selected for validation. Results of the manual arm optimization protocol and the ADCT optimization protocol were compared withmore » respect to dose optimization time, conformity indices, multiple-dose end points, tumor control probability, and normal tissue complication probability. Results: For the ADCT protocol, average time required to achieve an acceptable plan was 9 minutes, with one optimization compared with 94 minutes with more than two optimizations of the manual arm protocol. Target coverage was similar between the manual arm and ADCT plans. A more desirable dose distribution in the region of overlap between planning target volume and OARs was achieved in the ADCT plan. Dose end points of OARs were similar between the manual arm and ADCT plans. Conclusions: With the developed ADCT, IMRT treatment planning becomes more efficient and less dependent on the planner's experience on dose optimization. The developed ADCT is applicable to a wide range of advanced T-stage NPC treatment and has the potential to be applied in a broader context to IMRT planning for other cancer sites.« less
  • Purpose: To explore dosimetric effects of brainstem (BS) caused by weight loss during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Seventy-seven patients who were diagnosed with NPC by pathology biopsy have been enrolled. Every patients should receive weight measurement weekly and three times of computed tomography (CT) scans and replanning, at the 15th and 25th fraction during the treatment, respectively. The vertical diameter at the level of odontoid process (d1) and cervical vertebra 3 (d2) be measured from CT images (Supporting document Figure 1). All IMRT plans were designed by inverse planning with commercial treatmentmore » planning systems (Corvus 6.2 version, NOMOS Corporation). The dose differences between plan and actual delivery were generated to compare. Results: The weight loss was more in week 4–5 (3.21±2.19kg) than in week 1–3 (1.79±1.83kg) (Supporting document Figure 2). The d1 and d2 decreased was more significantly in week 4–5 than week 1–3, 2.83±1.75mm vs. 0.55±0.75mm and 2.98±2.96mm vs. 1.23±2.09mm, respectively. The maximum dose to the brainstem (BS Dmax) and the percentage of brainstem volume receiving ≥50Gy (BS V50) increased more significantly in week 4–5 than week 1–3, −3.02±5.49Gy vs. −1.85 ±4.88Gy and −1.85±4.88% vs. −0.77±3.32%, respectively. The changes of d1 and d2 and the BS-V50 and BS-Dmax were closely related to weight loss (p≤0.001)(Supporting document Table 1). Conclusion: The study results indicate that weight loss leads to the vertical diameter reduction, which results has a close relationship with dose of the brainstem during IMRT of NPC. This study was supported by Zhejiang Provincial Medicine and Health Foundation (2013KYB290) and Research Foundation of Science and Technology Department of Zhejiang Province 2015C33257.« less
  • Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) technique with fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: CT datasets of eleven nasopharyngeal-carcinoma patients were included. Dual-arc VMAT and seven-field IMRT plans were created for each case, and were then compared in terms of conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV), organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, monitor unit (MU) and delivery time. Results: The D98% (near-minimal dose) of PTV in the VMAT plans was slightly lower than that of the IMRT plans (P < 0.05), while the CI was higher than that of themore » IMRT plans (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the HI between the two plans (P > 0.05). Compared with the IMRT plans, the VMAT plans demonstrated lower Dmean (mean dose) of the bilateral temporal lobes and the whole surrounding normal tissue (P < 0.05), but slightly higher Dmean of brainstem (P < 0.05). In terms of the other OARs, no significant differences were found (P > 0.05). The MUs of the VMAT plans (672 ± 112) was significantly lower than that of the IMRT plans (917 ± 206), by 25 ± 13% (P < 0.05). The average delivery time of the VMAT plans (2.3 ± 0.1 min) was less than that of the IMRT plans (5.1 ± 0.4 min), by 54 ± 3%. Conclusion: For locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the VMAT technique could achieve equivalent or superior dose distribution of the target and better protect the bilateral temporal lobes, compared with the IMRT technique. Moreover, it could reduce the MU and delivery time effectively.« less
  • This study aimed to quantify dosimetric effects of weight loss for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Overall, 25 patients with NPC treated with IMRT were enrolled. We simulated weight loss during IMRT on the computer. Weight loss model was based on the planning computed tomography (CT) images. The original external contour of head and neck was labeled plan 0, and its volume was regarded as pretreatment normal weight. We shrank the external contour with different margins (2, 3, and 5 mm) and generated new external contours of head and neck. The volumes of reconstructed external contoursmore » were regarded as weight during radiotherapy. After recontouring outlines, the initial treatment plan was mapped to the redefined CT scans with the same beam configurations, yielding new plans. The computer model represented a theoretical proportional weight loss of 3.4% to 13.7% during the course of IMRT. The dose delivered to the planning target volume (PTV) of primary gross tumor volume and clinical target volume significantly increased by 1.9% to 2.9% and 1.8% to 2.9% because of weight loss, respectively. The dose to the PTV of gross tumor volume of lymph nodes fluctuated from −2.0% to 1.0%. The dose to the brain stem and the spinal cord was increased (p < 0.001), whereas the dose to the parotid gland was decreased (p < 0.001). Weight loss may lead to significant dosimetric change during IMRT. Repeated scanning and replanning for patients with NPC with an obvious weight loss may be necessary.« less