skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-{beta} responsiveness

Abstract

Background: The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been implicated in pathological fibrosis, but its physiologic role remains elusive. In vitro, transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) induces CCN2 expression in mesenchymal cells. Because CCN2 can enhance profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-{beta}, it has been proposed that CCN2 functions as an essential downstream signaling mediator for TGF-{beta}. To explore this notion, we characterized TGF-{beta}-induced activation of fibroblasts from CCN2-null (CCN2{sup -/-}) mouse embryos. Methods: The regulation of CCN2 expression was examined in vivo in a model of fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Cellular TGF-{beta} signal transduction and regulation of collagen gene expression were examined in CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs by immunohistochemistry, Northern, Western and RT-PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and transient transfection assays. Results: Bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in the mouse was associated with substantial CCN2 up-regulation in lesional fibroblasts. Whereas in vitro proliferation rate of CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs was markedly reduced compared to wild type MEFs, TGF-{beta}-induced activation of the Smad pathways, including Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad2/3 and Smad4 nuclear accumulation and Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, were unaffected by loss of CCN2. The stimulation of COL1A2 and fibronectin mRNA expression and promoter activity, and of corresponding protein levels, showed comparable time and dose-response in wild typemore » and CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs, whereas stimulation of alpha smooth muscle actin and myofibroblast transdifferentiation showed subtle impairment in MEFs lacking CCN2. Conclusion: Whereas endogenous CCN2 plays a role in regulation of proliferation and TGF-{beta}-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation, it appears to be dispensable for Smad-dependent stimulation of collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis in murine embryonic fibroblasts.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 240 E Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)
  2. OH/UCLA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  3. Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 240 E Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States), E-mail: j-varga@northwestern.edu
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21045950
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 314; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.12.010; PII: S0014-4827(07)00584-8; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACTIN; BLEOMYCIN; COLLAGEN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; FIBROBLASTS; FIBROSIS; GROWTH FACTORS; IN VITRO; MICE; PHOSPHORYLATION; POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION; SKIN; STIMULATION

Citation Formats

Mori, Yasuji, Hinchcliff, Monique, Wu, Minghua, Warner-Blankenship, Matthew, Lyons, Karen M., and Varga, John. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-{beta} responsiveness. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.12.010.
Mori, Yasuji, Hinchcliff, Monique, Wu, Minghua, Warner-Blankenship, Matthew, Lyons, Karen M., & Varga, John. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-{beta} responsiveness. United States. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.12.010.
Mori, Yasuji, Hinchcliff, Monique, Wu, Minghua, Warner-Blankenship, Matthew, Lyons, Karen M., and Varga, John. 2008. "Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-{beta} responsiveness". United States. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.12.010.
@article{osti_21045950,
title = {Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-{beta} responsiveness},
author = {Mori, Yasuji and Hinchcliff, Monique and Wu, Minghua and Warner-Blankenship, Matthew and Lyons, Karen M. and Varga, John},
abstractNote = {Background: The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been implicated in pathological fibrosis, but its physiologic role remains elusive. In vitro, transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) induces CCN2 expression in mesenchymal cells. Because CCN2 can enhance profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-{beta}, it has been proposed that CCN2 functions as an essential downstream signaling mediator for TGF-{beta}. To explore this notion, we characterized TGF-{beta}-induced activation of fibroblasts from CCN2-null (CCN2{sup -/-}) mouse embryos. Methods: The regulation of CCN2 expression was examined in vivo in a model of fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Cellular TGF-{beta} signal transduction and regulation of collagen gene expression were examined in CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs by immunohistochemistry, Northern, Western and RT-PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and transient transfection assays. Results: Bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in the mouse was associated with substantial CCN2 up-regulation in lesional fibroblasts. Whereas in vitro proliferation rate of CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs was markedly reduced compared to wild type MEFs, TGF-{beta}-induced activation of the Smad pathways, including Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad2/3 and Smad4 nuclear accumulation and Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, were unaffected by loss of CCN2. The stimulation of COL1A2 and fibronectin mRNA expression and promoter activity, and of corresponding protein levels, showed comparable time and dose-response in wild type and CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs, whereas stimulation of alpha smooth muscle actin and myofibroblast transdifferentiation showed subtle impairment in MEFs lacking CCN2. Conclusion: Whereas endogenous CCN2 plays a role in regulation of proliferation and TGF-{beta}-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation, it appears to be dispensable for Smad-dependent stimulation of collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis in murine embryonic fibroblasts.},
doi = {10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.12.010},
journal = {Experimental Cell Research},
number = 5,
volume = 314,
place = {United States},
year = 2008,
month = 3
}
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates many of the processes important in tissue repair, including proliferation of fibroblasts and synthesis of extracellular matrices. In this study, the authors have demonstrated with in situ hydridization and immunocytochemistry the reversible expression of 3-sis/PDGF-2 and PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) b mRNAs and their respective protein products in epithelial cells and fibroblasts following cutaneous injury in pigs. Epithelial cells in control, unwounded skin did not express c-sis and PDGF-R mRNAs, and fibroblasts expressed only PDGF-R mRNA. The expression levels in the injured site were correlated with the stage of tissue repair, being highest during the initialmore » stages of the repair process and declining at the time of complete re-epithelialization and tissue remodeling. These studies provide a mulecular basis for understanding the mechanisms contributing to normal tissue repair. They suggest the possibility that a defect in these mechanisms may be associated with defective wound healing. It is also conceivable that chronic injury may induce irreversible gene expression leading to pathologic, unregulated cell growth.« less
  • Most cell types have receptors for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and respond similarly to TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2. We have demonstrated the presence of a single class of high-affinity receptors (approximately 10,000 sites/cell) for TGF-beta 1 (Kd = 23 pM) and TGF-beta 2 (Kd = 41 pM) on early-passage rat lung fibroblasts (RLF). Incubation with unlabeled TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of binding of 15 pM ({sup 125}I)TGF-beta 1 (ED50, 20 and 28 pM, respectively) and ({sup 125}I)TGF-beta 2 (ED50, 36 and 56 pM, respectively). TGF-beta receptors affinity-cross-linked with 100 pM ({sup 125}I)TGF-beta 1 ormore » ({sup 125}I)TGF-beta 2 were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and exhibited labeled protein bands of 68, 88, and 286 kD. Densitometric analysis of the resulting autoradiograms showed that the different molecular weight TGF-beta binding proteins exhibited separate affinities for the two forms of TGF-beta. Both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 altered the morphology and cytoskeleton of RLF in a similar manner, but TGF-beta 1 was more potent than TGF-beta 2 in the inhibition of RLF growth and colony formation, with 50% inhibition by 0.12 pM TGF-beta 1 and 4.4 pM TGF-beta 2. Different affinities for the TGF-beta s may indicate selectivity among the receptor subtypes with regard to the biologic responsiveness of RLF to TGF-beta s. We believe this to be the first demonstration of biologically responsive TGF-beta receptors with different affinities for TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 on cells derived from normal, nonimmortal RLF. In establishing the basic mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis, it will be essential to understand the biology and biochemistry of the receptors that may control cell division and production of extracellular matrix components by fibroblasts.« less
  • Human bone marrow fibroblasts were cultivated and characterized by immunofluorescent staining and electron microscopy. Their interactions with PDGF and TGF{beta} were studied. While a positive intracellular antifibronectin staining was observed, the cultured cells were not labeled with specific antibodies toward factor VIII von Willebrand factor (F VIII/vWF), desmin, and macrophage antigen. The binding of pure human PDGF to the cultured bone marrow fibroblasts was investigated. Addition of an excess of unlabeled PDGF decreased the binding to 75 and 80%, which means that the nonspecific binding represented 20-25% of total binding, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) had no effect. Two classesmore » of sites were detected by Scatchard analysis. The stimulation of DNA synthesis of PDGF was quantified by ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation. The results suggested that PDGF and TGF{beta} could modulate the growth of bone marrow fibroblasts.« less
  • A mutant clone (MO-5) was originally isolated as a clone resistant to Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ionophoric antibiotic monensin from mouse Balb/c3T3 cells. MO-5 was found to show low receptor-endocytosis activity for epidermal growth factor (EGF):binding activity for EGF in MO-5 was less than one tenth of that in Balb/c3T3. Anchorage-independent growth of MO-5 was compared to that of Balb/c3T3 when assayed by colony formation capacity in soft agar. Coadministration of EGF and TGF-..beta.. efficiently enhanced anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, but neither factor alone was competent to promote the anchorage-independent growth. The frequency of colonies appearing inmore » soft agar of MO-5 or Balb/c3T3 was significantly enhanced by TGF-..beta.. while EGF did not further enhance that of MO-5 or Balb/c3T3. Colonies of Balb/c3T3 formed in soft agar in the presence of TGF-..beta.. showed low colony formation capacity in soft agar in the absence of TGF-..beta... Colonies of MO-5 formed by TGF-..beta.. in soft agar, however, showed high colony formation capacity in soft agar in the absence of TGF-..beta... Pretreatment of MO-5 with TGF-..beta.. induced secretion of TGF-..beta..-like activity from the cells, while the treatment of Balb/c3T3 did not induce the secretion of a significant amount of TGF-..beta..-like activity. The loss of EGF-receptor activity in the stable expression and maintenance of the transformed phenotype in MO-5 is discussed.« less
  • Renal fibrosis, a progressive process characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to organ dysfunction, is a characteristic of chronic kidney diseases. Among fibrogenic factors known to regulate the renal fibrotic process, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role. In the present study, we examined the effect of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a component of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus, on the processes associated with renal fibrosis in cultured mouse renal fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1. RT-PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and collagen assays showed that AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced fibroblast proliferation, transdifferentiation, and ECM production inmore » a dose-dependent manner. Examination of the underlying mechanisms showed that the effect of AS-IV on the inhibition of fibroblast differentiation and ECM formation were mediated by its modulation of the activity of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that AS-IV alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis via a mechanism involving the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of AS-IV for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases. - Highlights: • AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced renal fibroblast proliferation. • AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced renal fibroblast transdifferentiation. • AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced ECM production. • AS-IV alleviates renal fibrosis via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.« less