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Title: High Quality Image of Biomedical Object by X-ray Refraction Based Contrast Computed Tomography

Abstract

Recently we have developed a new Computed Tomography (CT) algorithm for refraction contrast that uses the optics of diffraction-enhanced imaging. We applied this new method to visualize soft tissue which is not visualized by the current absorption based contrast. The meaning of the contrast that appears in refraction-contrast X-ray CT images must be clarified from a biologic or anatomic point of view. It has been reported that the contrast is made with the specific gravity map with a range of approximately 10 {mu}arc sec. However, the relationship between the contrast and biologic or anatomic findings has not been investigated, to our knowledge. We compared refraction-contrast X-ray CT images with microscopic X-ray images, and we evaluated refractive indexes of pathologic lesions on phase-contrast X-ray CT images. We focused our attenuation of breast cancer and lung cancer as samples. X-ray refraction based Computed Tomography was appeared to be a pathological ability to depict the boundary between cancer nest and normal tissue, and inner structure of the disease.

Authors:
 [1]; ; ;  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4]; ;  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [1];  [3];  [9]
  1. Department of Photon-Science, School of Advanced Studies, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (GUAS), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan)
  2. Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)
  3. (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)
  4. Department of Health Sciences, Ibaraki prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2Ami, Ami, Inashiki, Ibaraki, 300-0394 (Japan)
  5. RIKEN Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan)
  6. Department of Bio-system Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)
  7. Dept. of Path., Nagoya Med. Center, Nat. Hospital Organization, Naka-ku, Nagoya 460-0001 (Japan)
  8. Matsumoto Dental University, 1980 Hirooka, Shiojiri, Nagano (Japan)
  9. (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21043413
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 9. international conference on synchrotron radiation instrumentation, Daegu (Korea, Republic of), 28 May - 2 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2436463; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ABSORPTION; ALGORITHMS; ATTENUATION; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; CAT SCANNING; IMAGES; LUNGS; MAMMARY GLANDS; NEOPLASMS; REFRACTIVE INDEX; X RADIATION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Hashimoto, E., Maksimenko, A., Hirano, K., Hyodo, K., Sugiyama, H., Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Shimao, D., Nishino, Y., Ishikawa, T., Yuasa, T., Ichihara, S., Arai, Y., Ando, M., Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, and Inst. of Sci. and Tech., Tokyo Univ. of Science, Yamasaki 2641, Noda, Chiba 278-8510. High Quality Image of Biomedical Object by X-ray Refraction Based Contrast Computed Tomography. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2436463.
Hashimoto, E., Maksimenko, A., Hirano, K., Hyodo, K., Sugiyama, H., Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Shimao, D., Nishino, Y., Ishikawa, T., Yuasa, T., Ichihara, S., Arai, Y., Ando, M., Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, & Inst. of Sci. and Tech., Tokyo Univ. of Science, Yamasaki 2641, Noda, Chiba 278-8510. High Quality Image of Biomedical Object by X-ray Refraction Based Contrast Computed Tomography. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436463.
Hashimoto, E., Maksimenko, A., Hirano, K., Hyodo, K., Sugiyama, H., Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Shimao, D., Nishino, Y., Ishikawa, T., Yuasa, T., Ichihara, S., Arai, Y., Ando, M., Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, and Inst. of Sci. and Tech., Tokyo Univ. of Science, Yamasaki 2641, Noda, Chiba 278-8510. Fri . "High Quality Image of Biomedical Object by X-ray Refraction Based Contrast Computed Tomography". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436463.
@article{osti_21043413,
title = {High Quality Image of Biomedical Object by X-ray Refraction Based Contrast Computed Tomography},
author = {Hashimoto, E. and Maksimenko, A. and Hirano, K. and Hyodo, K. and Sugiyama, H. and Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Shimao, D. and Nishino, Y. and Ishikawa, T. and Yuasa, T. and Ichihara, S. and Arai, Y. and Ando, M. and Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Inst. of Sci. and Tech., Tokyo Univ. of Science, Yamasaki 2641, Noda, Chiba 278-8510},
abstractNote = {Recently we have developed a new Computed Tomography (CT) algorithm for refraction contrast that uses the optics of diffraction-enhanced imaging. We applied this new method to visualize soft tissue which is not visualized by the current absorption based contrast. The meaning of the contrast that appears in refraction-contrast X-ray CT images must be clarified from a biologic or anatomic point of view. It has been reported that the contrast is made with the specific gravity map with a range of approximately 10 {mu}arc sec. However, the relationship between the contrast and biologic or anatomic findings has not been investigated, to our knowledge. We compared refraction-contrast X-ray CT images with microscopic X-ray images, and we evaluated refractive indexes of pathologic lesions on phase-contrast X-ray CT images. We focused our attenuation of breast cancer and lung cancer as samples. X-ray refraction based Computed Tomography was appeared to be a pathological ability to depict the boundary between cancer nest and normal tissue, and inner structure of the disease.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2436463},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • If an x-ray beam containing internal information derived from sample soft tissue is incident upon a Laue-case analyzer, the beam will subsequently split into a forwardly diffracted beam and a separate diffracted beam. Using these beams acquired simultaneously, a refraction-contrast computed tomography (CT) imaging system for biomedical use with lower radiation dose can be easily realized, and has a high depicting capability on the soft tissues compared with conventional x-ray CT based on absorption contrast principles. In this paper, we propose an imaging system using dark-field imaging for CT measurement based on a tandem system of Bragg- and Laue-case crystalsmore » with two two-dimensional detectors, along with a data-processing method to extract information on refraction from the measured entangled intensities by use of rocking curve fitting with polynomial functions. Reconstructed images of soft tissues are presented and described.« less
  • Purpose: Phase contrast computed tomography has emerged as an imaging method, which is able to outperform present day clinical mammography in breast tumor visualization while maintaining an equivalent average dose. To this day, no segmentation technique takes into account the specificity of the phase contrast signal. In this study, the authors propose a new mathematical framework for human-guided breast tumor segmentation. This method has been applied to high-resolution images of excised human organs, each of several gigabytes. Methods: The authors present a segmentation procedure based on the viscous watershed transform and demonstrate the efficacy of this method on analyzer basedmore » phase contrast images. The segmentation of tumors inside two full human breasts is then shown as an example of this procedure’s possible applications. Results: A correct and precise identification of the tumor boundaries was obtained and confirmed by manual contouring performed independently by four experienced radiologists. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that applying the watershed viscous transform allows them to perform the segmentation of tumors in high-resolution x-ray analyzer based phase contrast breast computed tomography images. Combining the additional information provided by the segmentation procedure with the already high definition of morphological details and tissue boundaries offered by phase contrast imaging techniques, will represent a valuable multistep procedure to be used in future medical diagnostic applications.« less
  • Propagation-based X-ray phase-contrast tomography (PCT) seeks to reconstruct information regarding the complex-valued refractive index distribution of an object. In many applications, a boundary-enhanced image is sought that reveals the locations of discontinuities in the real-valued component of the refractive index distribution. We investigate two iterative algorithms for few-view image reconstruction in boundary-enhanced PCT that exploit the fact that a boundary-enhanced PCT image, or its gradient, is often sparse. In order to exploit object sparseness, the reconstruction algorithms seek to minimize the {ell}{sub 1}-norm or TV-norm of the image, subject to data consistency constraints. We demonstrate that the algorithms can reconstructmore » accurate boundary-enhanced images from highly incomplete few-view projection data.« less
  • Zernike phase contrast is a useful technique for nanoscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of materials with a low X-ray absorption coefficient. It enhances the image contrast by phase shifting X-ray waves to create changes in amplitude. However, it creates artifacts that hinder the use of traditional image segmentation techniques. We propose an image restoration method that models the X-ray phase contrast optics and the three-dimensional image reconstruction method. We generate artifact-free images through an optimization problem that inverts this model. Though similar approaches have been used for Zernike phase contrast in visible light microscopy, this optimization employs an effectivemore » edge detection method tailored to handle Zernike phase contrast artifacts. We characterize this optics-based restoration method by removing the artifacts in and thresholding multiple Zernike phase contrast X-ray CT images to produce segmented results that are consistent with the physical specimens. We quantitatively evaluate and compare our method to other segmentation techniques to demonstrate its high accuracy.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the properties of tomographic grating-based phase contrast imaging with respect to its noise power spectrum and the energy dependence of the achievable contrast to noise ratio. Methods: Tomographic simulations of an object with 11 cm diameter constituted of materials of biological interest were conducted at different energies ranging from 25 to 85 keV by using a wave propagation approach. Using a Monte Carlo simulation of the x-ray attenuation within the object, it is verified that the simulated measurement deposits the same dose within the object at each energy. Results: The noise in reconstructed phase contrast computed tomographymore » images shows a maximum at low spatial frequencies. The contrast to noise ratio reaches a maximum around 45 keV for the simulated object. The general dependence of the contrast to noise on the energy appears to be independent of the material. Compared with reconstructed absorption contrast images, the reconstructed phase contrast images show sometimes better, sometimes worse, and sometimes similar contrast to noise, depending on the material and the energy. Conclusions: Phase contrast images provide additional information to the conventional absorption contrast images and might thus be useful for medical applications. However, the observed noise power spectrum in reconstructed phase contrast images implies that the usual trade-off between noise and resolution is less efficient for phase contrast imaging compared with absorption contrast imaging. Therefore, high-resolution imaging is a strength of phase contrast imaging, but low-resolution imaging is not. This might hamper the clinical application of the method, in cases where a low spatial resolution is sufficient for diagnosis.« less