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Title: Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory

Abstract

We are now developing automated sample exchange robots for high-throughput protein crystallographic experiments for onsite use at synchrotron beam lines. It is part of the fully automated robotics systems being developed at the Photon Factory, for the purposes of protein crystallization, monitoring crystal growth, harvesting and freezing crystals, mounting the crystals inside a hutch and for data collection. We have already installed the sample exchange robots based on the SSRL automated mounting system at our insertion device beam lines BL-5A and AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory. In order to reduce the time required for sample exchange further, a prototype of a double-tonged system was developed. As a result of preliminary experiments with double-tonged robots, the sample exchange time was successfully reduced from 70 seconds to 10 seconds with the exception of the time required for pre-cooling and warming up the tongs.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Structural Biology Research Center, Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21043398
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 9. international conference on synchrotron radiation instrumentation, Daegu (Korea, Republic of), 28 May - 2 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2436449; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; BIOLOGY; COOLING; CRYSTAL GROWTH; CRYSTALLIZATION; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; CRYSTALS; MONITORING; PHOTON BEAMS; PHOTONS; PROTEINS; ROBOTS; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; X RADIATION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Hiraki, Masahiko, Watanabe, Shokei, Yamada, Yusuke, Matsugaki, Naohiro, Igarashi, Noriyuki, Gaponov, Yurii, and Wakatsuki, Soichi. Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2436449.
Hiraki, Masahiko, Watanabe, Shokei, Yamada, Yusuke, Matsugaki, Naohiro, Igarashi, Noriyuki, Gaponov, Yurii, & Wakatsuki, Soichi. Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436449.
Hiraki, Masahiko, Watanabe, Shokei, Yamada, Yusuke, Matsugaki, Naohiro, Igarashi, Noriyuki, Gaponov, Yurii, and Wakatsuki, Soichi. Fri . "Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436449.
@article{osti_21043398,
title = {Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory},
author = {Hiraki, Masahiko and Watanabe, Shokei and Yamada, Yusuke and Matsugaki, Naohiro and Igarashi, Noriyuki and Gaponov, Yurii and Wakatsuki, Soichi},
abstractNote = {We are now developing automated sample exchange robots for high-throughput protein crystallographic experiments for onsite use at synchrotron beam lines. It is part of the fully automated robotics systems being developed at the Photon Factory, for the purposes of protein crystallization, monitoring crystal growth, harvesting and freezing crystals, mounting the crystals inside a hutch and for data collection. We have already installed the sample exchange robots based on the SSRL automated mounting system at our insertion device beam lines BL-5A and AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory. In order to reduce the time required for sample exchange further, a prototype of a double-tonged system was developed. As a result of preliminary experiments with double-tonged robots, the sample exchange time was successfully reduced from 70 seconds to 10 seconds with the exception of the time required for pre-cooling and warming up the tongs.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2436449},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movementmore » are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.« less
  • A fast-closing valve system has been designed and fabricated in order to protect the vacuum of the synchrotron radiation beam line and that of the 2.5-GeV storage ring from a sudden vacuum failure at the downstream end of the beam line. Upon the detection of a failure the valve closes within 11.9 ms by pneumatic pressure on a drive piston in a cylinder. Within the last 3.7 ms of the closing time the downward movement of the blade is decelerated so as to reduce the closing shock. A hard TiN ceramic membrane was coated on the surface of the titaniummore » blade. On the surface of a stainless-steel aperture an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiO/sub 2/ ceramic membrane (less hard than TiN) was coated in order to attain low conductance and smooth movement of the blade. This ensures a low leak rate of 0.135 torr l/s and a long life cycle of the mechanism (more than 8000 times).« less
  • The Photon Factory (PF) storage ring is a dedicated synchrotron radiation source. The stability of photon beams is the most important subject regarding such sources, since accurate positioning is especially required for sharply pointing undulator beams. A modification to increase the brightness by reducing the emittance of the circulating beams was carried out in 1987 at the PF ring. Though significant upgrades in the brightness have been obtained, many difficulties have simultaneously arisen, such as an increase of beam instabilities and photon-beam drifts. Stabilizing efforts have been carried out and great progress has been made: building distortion due to thermalmore » stress, reduced to 1/6 by thermally insulating the roof.« less
  • BL8A and 8B are new beamlines for structural materials science at Photon Factory. The primary characteristics of both beamlines are similar. The incident beam is monochromatized by the Si(111) double-flat crystal monochromator and focused at the sample position by a Rh-coated bent cylindrical quartz mirror. The Weissenberg-camera-type imaging-plate (IP) diffractometers were installed. The X-ray diffraction experiments for structural studies of strongly correlated materials, such as transition metals, molecular conductors, endohedral fullerenes, nano-materials, etc, are conducted at these stations.
  • If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers andmore » can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the q{sub z} direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.« less