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Title: Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

Abstract

A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R and D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2]; ; ; ;  [3]; ;  [4]; ; ;  [5]; ;  [6]
  1. INFN and Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)
  2. INFN and Universita di Brescia, 38 Via Branze 25123 Brescia (Italy)
  3. Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)
  4. Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)
  5. Institute Ruder Boskovic, 54 Bijenicka c. 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)
  6. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, I-21020 Ispra (Italy) (and others)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21036095
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 947; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 7. Latin American symposium on nuclear physics and applications, Cusco (Peru), 11-16 Jun 2007; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2813872; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; CARGO; CONTAINERS; CROATIA; DETECTION; EXPLOSIVES; IMAGE SCANNERS; NARCOTICS; NEUTRONS; X RADIATION; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Viesti, G., Botosso, C., Fabris, D., Lunardon, M., Moretto, S., Nebbia, G., Pesente, S., Zenoni, A., Donzella, A., Perot, B., Carasco, C., Bernard, S., Mariani, A., Szabo, J.-L., Sannie, G., Valkovic, V., Sudac, D., Nad, K., Peerani, P., and Sequeira, V. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2813872.
Viesti, G., Botosso, C., Fabris, D., Lunardon, M., Moretto, S., Nebbia, G., Pesente, S., Zenoni, A., Donzella, A., Perot, B., Carasco, C., Bernard, S., Mariani, A., Szabo, J.-L., Sannie, G., Valkovic, V., Sudac, D., Nad, K., Peerani, P., & Sequeira, V. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2813872.
Viesti, G., Botosso, C., Fabris, D., Lunardon, M., Moretto, S., Nebbia, G., Pesente, S., Zenoni, A., Donzella, A., Perot, B., Carasco, C., Bernard, S., Mariani, A., Szabo, J.-L., Sannie, G., Valkovic, V., Sudac, D., Nad, K., Peerani, P., and Sequeira, V. 2007. "Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2813872.
@article{osti_21036095,
title = {Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons},
author = {Viesti, G. and Botosso, C. and Fabris, D. and Lunardon, M. and Moretto, S. and Nebbia, G. and Pesente, S. and Zenoni, A. and Donzella, A. and Perot, B. and Carasco, C. and Bernard, S. and Mariani, A. and Szabo, J.-L. and Sannie, G. and Valkovic, V. and Sudac, D. and Nad, K. and Peerani, P. and Sequeira, V.},
abstractNote = {A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R and D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2813872},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 947,
place = {United States},
year = 2007,
month =
}
  • Nowadays in Russia and abroad there are several groups of scientists, engaged in development of systems based on 'tagged' neutron method (API method) and intended for detection of dangerous materials, including high explosives (HE). Particular attention is paid to possibility of detection of dangerous objects inside a sea cargo container. Energy gamma-spectrum, registered from object under inspection is used for determination of oxygen/carbon and nitrogen/carbon chemical ratios, according to which dangerous object is distinguished from not dangerous one. Material of filled container, however, gives rise to additional effects of rescattering and moderation of 14 MeV primary neutrons of generator, attenuationmore » of secondary gamma-radiation from reactions of inelastic neutron scattering on objects under inspection. These effects lead to distortion of energy gamma-response from examined object and therefore prevent correct recognition of chemical ratios. These difficulties are taken into account in analytical method, presented in the paper. Method has been validated against experimental data, obtained by the system for HE detection in sea cargo, based on API method and developed in VNIIA. Influence of shielding materials on results of HE detection and identification is considered. Wood and iron were used as shielding materials. Results of method application for analysis of experimental data on HE simulator measurement (tetryl, trotyl, hexogen) are presented.« less
  • Factors affecting sensing of small quantities of fissionable material in large sea-going cargo containers by neutron interrogation and detection of {beta}-delayed photons are explored. The propagation of variable-energy neutrons in cargos, subsequent fission of hidden nuclear material and production of the {beta}-delayed photons, and the propagation of these photons to an external detector are considered explicitly. Detailed results of Monte Carlo simulations of these stages in representative cargos are presented. Analytical models are developed both as a basis for a quantitative understanding of the interrogation process and as a tool to allow ready extrapolation of the results to cases notmore » specifically considered here.« less
  • Creation of synthetic cargo-container radiographs that possess attributes of their empirical counterparts requires accurate models of the imaging system response. Synthetic radiographs serve as surrogate data in studies aimed at determining system effectiveness for detecting target objects when it is impractical to collect a large set of empirical radiographs. In the case where a detailed understanding of the detector system is available, an accurate detector model can be derived from first principles. In the absence of this detail, it is necessary to derive empirical models of the imaging-system response from radiographs of well-characterized objects. Such a case is the topicmore » of this work, where we demonstrate the development of an empirical model of a gamma-ray radiography system with the intent of creating a detector-response model that translates uncollided photon transport calculations into realistic synthetic radiographs. The detector-response model is calibrated to field measurements of well-characterized objects thus incorporating properties such as system sensitivity, spatial resolution, contrast, and noise.« less
  • Creation of synthetic cargo-container radiographs that possess attributes of their empirical counterparts requires accurate models of the imaging system response. Synthetic radiographs serve as surrogate data in studies aimed at determining system effectiveness for detecting target objects when it is impractical to collect a large set of empirical radiographs. In the case where a detailed understanding of the detector system is available, an accurate detector model can be derived from first principles. In the absence of this detail, it is necessary to derive empirical models of the imaging-system response from radiographs of well-characterized objects. Such a case is the topicmore » of this work, where we demonstrate the development of an empirical model of a gamma-ray radiography system with the intent of creating a detector-response model that translates uncollided photon transport calculations into realistic synthetic radiographs. The detector-response model is calibrated to field measurements of well-characterized objects thus incorporating properties such as system sensitivity, spatial resolution, contrast, and noise.« less
  • The sensitivity for identification of high-Z objects in elemental form in the massive cargo of intermodal containers with continuous bremsstrahlung radiation depends critically on discriminating the weak signal from uncollided photons from the very intense flux of scattered radiations that penetrate the cargo. We propose that this might be accomplished by rejection of detected events with E {le} 2-3 MeV that contain the majority of multiply-scattered photons along with a correction for single-scattered photons at higher energies. Monte Carlo simulations of radiographs with a 9-MeV bremsstrahlung spectrum demonstrate that rejection of detected events with E {le} 3 MeV removes themore » majority of signals from scattered photons emerging through cargo with Z {le} 30 and areal densities of at least 145 g cm{sup -2}. With analytical estimates of the single-scattered intensity at higher energies, accurate estimates of linear attenuation coefficients for shielded and unshielded uranium spheres with masses as small as 0.08 kg are found. The estimated maximum dose is generally so low that reasonable order tomography of interesting portions of a container should be possible.« less