skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties

Abstract

The goal of this research was to provide a tool for regulators to evaluate the groundwater contamination from the use of virgin and secondary materials in road construction. A finite element model, HYDRUS2D, was used to evaluate generic scenarios for secondary material use in base layers. Use of generic model results for particular applications was demonstrated through a steel slag example. The hydrology and reactive transport of contaminants were modeled in a two-dimensional cross section of a road. Model simulations showed that in an intact pavement, lateral velocities from the edge towards the centerline may transport contaminants in the base layer. The dominant transport mechanisms are advection closer to the edge and diffusion closer to the centerline. A shoulder joint in the pavement allows 0.03 to 0.45 m{sup 3}/day of infiltration per meter of joint length as a function of the base and subgrade hydrology and the rain intensity. Scenario simulations showed that salts in the base layer of pavements are depleted by 99% in the first 20 years, whereas the metals may not reach the groundwater in 20 years at any significant concentrations if the pavement is built on adsorbing soils.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Mail Stop 307, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States), E-mail: Defne.apul@utoledo.edu
  2. Environmental Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, 35 Colovos Road, Durham, NH 03824 (United States), E-mail: Kevin.gardner@unh.edu
  3. Environmental Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, 35 Colovos Road, Durham, NH 03824 (United States), E-mail: Taylor.eighmy@unh.edu
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21023859
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 10; Conference: WASCON 2006: 6. international conference on the environmental and technical Implications of construction with alternative materials - Developments in the re-use of mineral waste, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro), 30 May - 2 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2007.03.018; PII: S0956-053X(07)00118-3; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CRACKS; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; GROUND WATER; HYDROLOGY; LAYERS; RAIN; SIMULATION; SOILS; STEELS

Citation Formats

Apul, Defne S., Gardner, Kevin H., and Eighmy, T. Taylor. Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2007.03.018.
Apul, Defne S., Gardner, Kevin H., & Eighmy, T. Taylor. Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties. United States. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2007.03.018.
Apul, Defne S., Gardner, Kevin H., and Eighmy, T. Taylor. 2007. "Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties". United States. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2007.03.018.
@article{osti_21023859,
title = {Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties},
author = {Apul, Defne S. and Gardner, Kevin H. and Eighmy, T. Taylor},
abstractNote = {The goal of this research was to provide a tool for regulators to evaluate the groundwater contamination from the use of virgin and secondary materials in road construction. A finite element model, HYDRUS2D, was used to evaluate generic scenarios for secondary material use in base layers. Use of generic model results for particular applications was demonstrated through a steel slag example. The hydrology and reactive transport of contaminants were modeled in a two-dimensional cross section of a road. Model simulations showed that in an intact pavement, lateral velocities from the edge towards the centerline may transport contaminants in the base layer. The dominant transport mechanisms are advection closer to the edge and diffusion closer to the centerline. A shoulder joint in the pavement allows 0.03 to 0.45 m{sup 3}/day of infiltration per meter of joint length as a function of the base and subgrade hydrology and the rain intensity. Scenario simulations showed that salts in the base layer of pavements are depleted by 99% in the first 20 years, whereas the metals may not reach the groundwater in 20 years at any significant concentrations if the pavement is built on adsorbing soils.},
doi = {10.1016/j.wasman.2007.03.018},
journal = {Waste Management},
number = 10,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = 2007,
month = 7
}
  • A numerical model is formulated to simulate one-dimensional transport of a conservative tracer through the Niagara River, from Fort Erie to Niagara-on-the-Lake. The model accounts for flow splits at Grand and Navy islands and, more significantly, incorporates the operations of the New York Power Authority and Ontario Hydropower. These involve large-scale diversions and temporary storage of water for power production, resulting in a dispersion-like effect on the breakthrough curves for the tracer at Niagara-on-the-Lake. In comparison with straight through-flow calculations, the model results indicate an increase in mean residence times by up to 25% and decreases in peak concentrations bymore » up to 50%, depending on the time of day the contaminant release occurs. In addition, the model shows the distribution of tracer mass remaining in the system after a typical sampling program, as currently followed in the Niagara River Toxics Management Plan. This allows a determination of optimal timing for sampling in order to maximize mass recovery. The model provides a tool to help understand transport in this complex hydraulic system. 10 refs., 13 refs.« less
  • Salt domes in the East Texas Basin are being studied as potential sites for deep burial of nuclear wastes. 44 refs.
  • This article develops a novel multiscale modeling approach to analyze CO2 reservoirs using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s STOMP-CO2-R code that is interfaced with the ABAQUS® finite element package. The STOMP-CO2-R/ABAQUS® sequentially coupled simulator accounts for the reactive transport of CO2 causing mineral composition changes that modify the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals. Formation rocks’ elastic properties that vary during CO2 injection and govern the poroelastic behavior of rocks are modeled by an Eshelby-Mori-Tanka approach (EMTA) implemented in ABAQUS® via user-subroutines. The computational tool incorporates the change in rock permeability due to both geochemistry and geomechanics. A three-dimensional (3D)more » STOMP-CO2-R model for a model CO2 reservoir containing a vertical fault is built to analyze a formation containing a realistic geochemical reaction network with 5 minerals: albite, anorthite, calcite, kaolinite and quartz. A 3D ABAQUS® model that maps the above STOMP-CO2-R model is built for the analysis using STOMP-CO2-R/ABAQUS®. The results show that the changes in volume fraction of minerals include dissolution of anorthite, precipitation of calcite and kaolinite, with little change in the albite volume fraction. After a long period of CO2 injection the mineralogical and geomechanical changes significantly reduced the permeability and elastic modulus of the reservoir (between the base and caprock) in front of the fault leading to a reduction of the pressure margin to fracture at and beyond the injection location. The impact of reactive transport of CO2 on the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals are studied in terms of mineral composition changes that directly affect the rock stiffness, stress and strain distributions as well as the pressure margin to fracture.« less
  • Cited by 1
  • A numerically based simulator was developed to assist in the interpretation of complex laboratory experiments examining transport processes of chemical and biological contaminants subject to nonlinear adsorption and/or source terms. The inversion is performed with any of three nonlinear regression methods, Marquardt-Levenberg, conjugate gradient, or quasi-Newton. The governing equations for the problem are solved by the method of finite-differences including any combination of three boundary conditions: (1) Dirichlet, (2) Neumann, and (3) Cauchy. The dispersive terms in the transport equations were solved using the second-order accurate in time and space Crank-Nicolson scheme, while the advective terms were handled using amore » third-order in time and space, total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme that damps spurious oscillations around sharp concentration fronts. The numerical algorithms were implemented in the computer code INVERTS, which runs on any standard personal computer. Apart from a comprehensive set of test problems, INVERTS was also used to model the elution of a nonradioactive tracer, {sup 185}Re, in a pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) experiment with a simulated waste glass for low-activity waste immobilization. Interpretation of the elution profile was best described with a nonlinear kinetic model for adsorption.« less