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Title: Baryogenesis from an earlier phase transition

Abstract

We explore the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe is the result of an earlier phase transition in which an extended gauge sector breaks down into the SU(3){sub C}xSU(2){sub L}xU(1){sub Y} of the standard model. Our proto-typical example is the topflavor model, in which there is a separate SU(2){sub 1} for the third generation from the SU(2){sub 2} felt by the first two generations. We show that the breakdown of SU(2){sub 1}xSU(2){sub 2}{yields}SU(2){sub L} results in lepton number being asymmetrically distributed throughout the three families, and provided the SM electroweak phase transition is not strongly first order, results in a nonzero baryon number, which for parameter choices that can be explored at the LHC may explain the observed baryon asymmetry.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. HEP Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21020134
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. D, Particles Fields; Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.063510; (c) 2007 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; ASYMMETRY; BARYON NUMBER; BARYONS; CERN LHC; ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS; LEPTON NUMBER; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; STANDARD MODEL; SU-2 GROUPS; SU-3 GROUPS; U-1 GROUPS; UNIVERSE; WEAK INTERACTIONS

Citation Formats

Shu Jing, Wagner, Carlos E. M., HEP Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, and Tait, Tim M. P. Baryogenesis from an earlier phase transition. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVD.75.063510.
Shu Jing, Wagner, Carlos E. M., HEP Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, & Tait, Tim M. P. Baryogenesis from an earlier phase transition. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVD.75.063510.
Shu Jing, Wagner, Carlos E. M., HEP Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, and Tait, Tim M. P. Thu . "Baryogenesis from an earlier phase transition". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVD.75.063510.
@article{osti_21020134,
title = {Baryogenesis from an earlier phase transition},
author = {Shu Jing and Wagner, Carlos E. M. and HEP Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 and Tait, Tim M. P.},
abstractNote = {We explore the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe is the result of an earlier phase transition in which an extended gauge sector breaks down into the SU(3){sub C}xSU(2){sub L}xU(1){sub Y} of the standard model. Our proto-typical example is the topflavor model, in which there is a separate SU(2){sub 1} for the third generation from the SU(2){sub 2} felt by the first two generations. We show that the breakdown of SU(2){sub 1}xSU(2){sub 2}{yields}SU(2){sub L} results in lepton number being asymmetrically distributed throughout the three families, and provided the SM electroweak phase transition is not strongly first order, results in a nonzero baryon number, which for parameter choices that can be explored at the LHC may explain the observed baryon asymmetry.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVD.75.063510},
journal = {Physical Review. D, Particles Fields},
number = 6,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • We explore the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe is the result of an earlier phase transition in which an extended gauge sector breaks down into the SU(3){sub c} x SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} of the standard model. Our proto-typical example is the topflavor model, in which there is a separate SU(2){sub 1} for the third generation from the SU(2){sub 2} felt by the first two generations. We show that the breakdown of SU(2){sub 1} x SU(2){sub 2} {yields} SU(2){sub L} results in lepton number being asymmetrically distributed throughout the three families, and provided the SMmore » electroweak phase transition is not strongly first order, results in a nonzero baryon number, which for parameter choices that can be explored at the LHC may explain the observed baryon asymmetry.« less
  • We quantitatively study the charge transport mechanism of electroweak baryogenesis in a realistic two-Higgs-doublet model, comparing the contributions from quarks and leptons reflecting from electroweak domain walls, and comparing the exact profile of the {ital CP}-violating phase with a commonly used ansatz. We note that the phenomenon of spontaneous {ital CP} violation at high temperature can occur in this model, even when there is no {ital CP} violation at zero temperature. We include all known effects which are likely to influence the baryon production rate, including strong sphalerons, the nontrivial dispersion relations of the quasiparticles in the plasma, and Debyemore » screening of gauged charges. We confirm the claim of Joyce, Prokopec, and Turok that the reflection of {tau} leptons from the wall gives the dominant effect. We conclude that this mechanism is at best marginally capable of producing the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe, and we discuss some ways in which it might be enhanced. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}« less
  • We study the possibility of baryogenesis in the case of supersymmetry breaking with large mixing between the {tilde c}{sub R} and {tilde t}{sub R} or {tilde u}{sub R} and {tilde t}{sub R} squarks resulting in one light right-handed up-type squark mass eigenstate. We argue that in this case the electroweak phase transition will be first order, and that large phases already present in the quark mass matrices can generate a baryon asymmetry of the correct magnitude without introducing any new phases specifically for this purpose. We study in detail a particular ansatz for supersymmetry breaking and CP violation where theremore » is only one CP violating phase in the theory: in the up-type quark mass matrix. We study the constraints placed on this model by baryogenesis and flavor physics. This scenario has robust implications for low energy flavor physics including D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing and an electric dipole moment for the neutron that are close to the experimental bounds, and CP violation in the B-{bar B} system that is different from that in the standard model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}« less
  • We give an analytic treatment of the one-Higgs-doublet, electroweak phase transition which demonstrates that the phase transition is first order. The phase transition occurs by the nucleation of thin-walled bubbles and completes as a temperature where the order parameter {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub {ital T}} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon-number violation is an exponentially sensitive function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub {ital T}}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub {ital T}} so that anomalous baryon-number violation is suppressed aftermore » the completion of the phase transition. Hence, baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal extensions of the standard model with one Higgs doublet.« less
  • The generation of the observed baryon asymmetry may have taken place during the electroweak phase transition, thus involving physics testable at LHC, a scenario dubbed electroweak baryogenesis. In this paper we point out that the magnetic field which is produced in the bubbles of a first order phase transition endangers the baryon asymmetry produced in the bubble walls. The reason being that the produced magnetic field couples to the sphaleron magnetic moment and lowers the sphaleron energy; this strengthens the sphaleron transitions inside the bubbles and triggers a more effective wash out of the baryon asymmetry. We apply this scenariomore » to the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) where, in the absence of a magnetic field, successful electroweak baryogenesis requires the lightest CP-even Higgs and the right-handed stop masses to be lighter than about 127 GeV and 120 GeV, respectively. We show that even for moderate values of the magnetic field, the Higgs mass required to preserve the baryon asymmetry is below the present experimental bound. As a consequence electroweak baryogenesis within the MSSM should be confronted on the one hand to future measurements at the LHC on the Higgs and the right-handed stop masses, and on the other hand to more precise calculations of the magnetic field produced at the electroweak phase transition.« less