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Title: A sol-gel route for the development of rare-earth aluminum borate nanopowders and transparent thin films

Abstract

A new sol-gel route was applied to obtain Y{sub 0.9}Er{sub 0.1}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} crystalline powders and amorphous thin films by using Al(acac){sub 3}, B(OPr {sup i}){sub 3}, Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O, and Er(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O as starting materials dissolved in propionic acid and ethyl alcohol mixtures. Our study shows that propionic acid acts as good chelant agent for yttrium and erbium ions while ethyl alcohol allows to dissolve Al(acac){sub 3}. This process makes the resulting sols very stable to obtain homogeneous gels and transparent amorphous thin films. In addition, the propionic acid prevents the sol precipitation, making easy porous- and crack-free thin film depositions. Chemical reactions involved in the complexation were discussed. As-prepared powders and films are amorphous and present a good thermal stability due to their high glass transition (746 deg. C) and crystallization temperatures (830 deg. C). This new sol-gel route showed to be adequate to obtain dense and crack-free thin films free of organic and hydroxyl groups that can be considered as promising materials to be used in integrated optical systems. - Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of Y{sub 0.9}Er{sub 0.1}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} powders calcined at 400 and 700 deg. C during 24 h andmore » heat-treated at 1150 deg. C.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [3]
  1. Grupo Crescimento de Cristais e Materiais Ceramicos, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos/SP (Brazil)
  2. (France), E-mail: lauro@if.sc.usp.br
  3. Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, UPR 5031, associe a l'Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble et a l'INPG, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21015691
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 180; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2006.11.016; PII: S0022-4596(06)00599-8; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS; BORATES; CRYSTALLIZATION; DEPOSITION; ERBIUM NITRATES; ETHANOL; HEAT TREATMENTS; OPTICAL SYSTEMS; POROUS MATERIALS; PRECIPITATION; PROPIONIC ACID; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SOL-GEL PROCESS; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 1000-4000 K; THERMAL ANALYSIS; THIN FILMS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; YTTRIUM NITRATES

Citation Formats

Maia, Lauro J.Q., Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, UPR 5031, associe a l'Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble et a l'INPG, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, Mastelaro, Valmor R., Pairis, Sebastien, Hernandes, Antonio C., and Ibanez, Alain. A sol-gel route for the development of rare-earth aluminum borate nanopowders and transparent thin films. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jssc.2006.11.016.
Maia, Lauro J.Q., Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, UPR 5031, associe a l'Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble et a l'INPG, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, Mastelaro, Valmor R., Pairis, Sebastien, Hernandes, Antonio C., & Ibanez, Alain. A sol-gel route for the development of rare-earth aluminum borate nanopowders and transparent thin films. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jssc.2006.11.016.
Maia, Lauro J.Q., Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, UPR 5031, associe a l'Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble et a l'INPG, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, Mastelaro, Valmor R., Pairis, Sebastien, Hernandes, Antonio C., and Ibanez, Alain. Thu . "A sol-gel route for the development of rare-earth aluminum borate nanopowders and transparent thin films". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jssc.2006.11.016.
@article{osti_21015691,
title = {A sol-gel route for the development of rare-earth aluminum borate nanopowders and transparent thin films},
author = {Maia, Lauro J.Q. and Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, UPR 5031, associe a l'Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble et a l'INPG, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble and Mastelaro, Valmor R. and Pairis, Sebastien and Hernandes, Antonio C. and Ibanez, Alain},
abstractNote = {A new sol-gel route was applied to obtain Y{sub 0.9}Er{sub 0.1}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} crystalline powders and amorphous thin films by using Al(acac){sub 3}, B(OPr {sup i}){sub 3}, Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O, and Er(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O as starting materials dissolved in propionic acid and ethyl alcohol mixtures. Our study shows that propionic acid acts as good chelant agent for yttrium and erbium ions while ethyl alcohol allows to dissolve Al(acac){sub 3}. This process makes the resulting sols very stable to obtain homogeneous gels and transparent amorphous thin films. In addition, the propionic acid prevents the sol precipitation, making easy porous- and crack-free thin film depositions. Chemical reactions involved in the complexation were discussed. As-prepared powders and films are amorphous and present a good thermal stability due to their high glass transition (746 deg. C) and crystallization temperatures (830 deg. C). This new sol-gel route showed to be adequate to obtain dense and crack-free thin films free of organic and hydroxyl groups that can be considered as promising materials to be used in integrated optical systems. - Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of Y{sub 0.9}Er{sub 0.1}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} powders calcined at 400 and 700 deg. C during 24 h and heat-treated at 1150 deg. C.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jssc.2006.11.016},
journal = {Journal of Solid State Chemistry},
number = 2,
volume = 180,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film on Pt/RuO{sub 2} double electrode was successfully prepared by using new alkoxide{endash}alkanolamine, sol-gel method. It was observed that the use of Pt/RuO{sub 2} double electrode reduced leakage current, resulting in a marked improvement in the leakage characteristics and more reliable capacitors. Typical P-E hysteresis behavior was observed even at low applied voltage of 5 V, manifesting greatly improved remanance and coercivity. Fatigue and breakdown characteristic, measured at 5 V, showed stable behavior and no degradation in polarization was observed up to 10{sup 11} cycles.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}
  • Transparent conducting oxides were successfully prepared from mixed zinc nitrate hexahydrate and indium nitrate hydrate solutions in ethylene glycol using sol-gel technique. The In content in the film was varied (0, 2, 10, 20, 40, 75 and 100 atom %). Films were prepared by spin coating of the liquid precursors followed by thermal decomposition at 400° C after each layer. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the pure ZnO and pure InO films (0 and at 100 % In) were crystalline as-deposited. The crystallinity was suppressed in mixed compositions such that the films with compositions between 10 and 75 atmore » % were amorphous. All the films were transparent with the transmission cut-off frequency near 400 nm, which is characteristic of TCO materials. All as-deposited films were conductive with 0 and 100 atom % In having the lowest resistivities. The resistivity of all compositions were improved by post-deposition reducing anneal in pure Ar at 300° C. The lowest resistivity of 0.2 Ωcm was obtained for the pure ZnO after Ar anneal. It was two-orders of magnitude higher than reported in the literature for the In-doped ZnO, which was attributed to the low processing temperature. The resistivities of as-deposited and annealed in Ar films were increased by consequent air anneal at 300° C.« less
  • Transparent conducting ZnO doped with Al, Ga and co-doped Al and Ga (1:1) (AGZO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by cost effective sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD results showed that all the films are polycrystalline in nature and highly textured along the (002) plane. Enhanced grain size was observed in the case of AGZO thin films. The transmittance of all the films was more than 83% in the visible region of light. The electrical properties such as carrier concentration and mobility values are increased in case of AGZO compared to that of Al and Ga doped ZnOmore » thin films. The minimum resistivity of 2.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm was observed in AGZO thin film. The co-doped AGZO thin films exhibited minimum resistivity and high optical transmittance, indicate that co-doped ZnO thin films could be used in transparent electronics mainly in display applications.« less
  • Eu{sup 3+} fluorescence spectroscopy is used to investigate the clustering of rare-earth ions and the effectiveness of aluminum codoping in dispersing and isolating rare-earth ions in sol-gel silica monoliths. Fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) studies are demonstrated as a useful tool in identifying clustered and isolated Eu{sup 3+}. Clustered Eu{sup 3+} is identified by the lack of a line-narrowing effect, which is attributed to energy transfer between adjacent Eu{sup 3+} ions. Clustering is shown to be significant, even in transparent samples with Eu{sup 3+} concentrations as low as 0.5 wt% Eu{sup 3+}. Addition of Al{sup 3+} as a codopant has a profoundmore » impact on the bonding and structure of Eu{sup 3+} in silica. Significant fluorescence line narrowing is observed, which suggests that Al{sup 3+} codoping is effective in dispersing and isolating Eu{sup 3+} ions in the silica matrix. Fluorescence decay studies provide evidence of increased Eu{sup 3+} hydroxylation in the Al{sup 3+}-containing samples. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • In this paper, we report a versatile synthetic method of ordered rare-earth metal (RE) oxide nanotubes. RE (RE=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) oxide nanotubes were successfully prepared from corresponding RE nitrate solution via the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been employed to characterize the morphology and composition of the as-prepared nanotubes. It is found that as-prepared RE oxides evolve into bamboo-like nanotubes and entirely hollow nanotubes. A new possible formation mechanism of REmore » oxide nanotubes in the AAO channels is proposed. These high-quantity RE oxide nanotubes are expected to have promising applications in many areas such as luminescent materials, catalysts, magnets, etc. - Graphical abstract: A versatile synthetic method for the preparation of ordered rare-earth (RE) oxide nanotubes is reported, by which RE (RE=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) oxide nanotubes were successfully prepared from corresponding RE nitrate solution via the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates.« less