skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Geminin is cleaved by caspase-3 during apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts

Abstract

Geminin is an important cell cycle regulator having a dual role in cell proliferation and differentiation. During proliferation, Geminin controls DNA synthesis by interacting with the licensing factor Cdt1 and interferes with the onset of differentiation by inhibiting the activity of transcription factors such as Hox and Six3. During early development Geminin also functions as neural inducer. Thus differential interaction of Geminin with Cdt1 or development-specific transcription factors influence the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Here, we report an additional feature of Geminin showing that it is a novel substrate of caspase-3 during apoptosis in in vitro Xenopus egg extracts. We also show that cleavage of Geminin occurs both in solution and on chromatin with distinct kinetics. In addition we show that cleavage of Geminin by caspase-3 is not relevant to its function as regulator of DNA synthesis, suggesting that its cleavage may be relevant to its role in differentiation.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20991533
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 361; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.06.117; PII: S0006-291X(07)01332-0; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APOPTOSIS; BIOSYNTHESIS; CELL CYCLE; CELL PROLIFERATION; CHROMATIN; CLEAVAGE; DNA; DNA REPLICATION; IN VITRO; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

Citation Formats

Auziol, Camille, Mechali, Marcel, and Maiorano, Domenico. E-Mail: maiorano@igh.cnrs.fr. Geminin is cleaved by caspase-3 during apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.06.117.
Auziol, Camille, Mechali, Marcel, & Maiorano, Domenico. E-Mail: maiorano@igh.cnrs.fr. Geminin is cleaved by caspase-3 during apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts. United States. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.06.117.
Auziol, Camille, Mechali, Marcel, and Maiorano, Domenico. E-Mail: maiorano@igh.cnrs.fr. 2007. "Geminin is cleaved by caspase-3 during apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts". United States. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.06.117.
@article{osti_20991533,
title = {Geminin is cleaved by caspase-3 during apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts},
author = {Auziol, Camille and Mechali, Marcel and Maiorano, Domenico. E-Mail: maiorano@igh.cnrs.fr},
abstractNote = {Geminin is an important cell cycle regulator having a dual role in cell proliferation and differentiation. During proliferation, Geminin controls DNA synthesis by interacting with the licensing factor Cdt1 and interferes with the onset of differentiation by inhibiting the activity of transcription factors such as Hox and Six3. During early development Geminin also functions as neural inducer. Thus differential interaction of Geminin with Cdt1 or development-specific transcription factors influence the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Here, we report an additional feature of Geminin showing that it is a novel substrate of caspase-3 during apoptosis in in vitro Xenopus egg extracts. We also show that cleavage of Geminin occurs both in solution and on chromatin with distinct kinetics. In addition we show that cleavage of Geminin by caspase-3 is not relevant to its function as regulator of DNA synthesis, suggesting that its cleavage may be relevant to its role in differentiation.},
doi = {10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.06.117},
journal = {Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications},
number = 2,
volume = 361,
place = {United States},
year = 2007,
month = 9
}
  • Apoptosis involves a cascade of biochemical and morphological changes resulting in the systematic disintegration of the cell. Caspases are central mediators of this process. Supporting and primary roles for serine proteases as pro-apoptotic mediators have also been highlighted. Evidence for such roles comes largely from the use of pharmacological inhibitors; as a consequence information regarding their apoptotic function and biochemical properties has been limited. Here, we circumvented limitations associated with traditional serine protease inhibitors through use of a fluorescently labelled inhibitor of serine proteases (FLISP) that allowed for analysis of the specificity, regulation and positioning of apoptotic serine proteases withinmore » a classical apoptotic cascade. We demonstrate that staurosporine triggers a caspase-dependant induction of chymotrypsin-like activity in the nucleus of apoptotic Jurkat T cells. We show that serine protease activity is required for the generation of late stage nuclear events including condensation, fragmentation and DNA degradation. Furthermore, we reveal caspase-dependant activation of two chymotrypsin-like protein species that we hypothesize mediate cell death-associated nuclear events.« less
  • Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAsV) is a degradation product of chemical warfare agents, over which there has been a public outcry in the Kamisu Area of Ibaraki Prefecture in Japan. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of and cellular response to DPAsV in primary mouse hepatocytes. Exposure of the hepatocytes to DPAsV resulted in cell damage accompanied by cellular accumulation of DPAsV in a time-dependent manner. The cell death caused by DPAsV was attributable to apoptosis. DPAsV activated a basic leucine-zipper transcription factor Nrf2 as determined by the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, anti-oxidant response element (ARE)-dependent luciferase activity, and upregulation ofmore » downstream gene products. However, {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy subunit chain ({gamma}-GCS{sub H}), which is regulated by Nrf2, underwent cleavage by activated caspase-3 to a 17 kDa fragment, leading to a minimal level of constitutive {gamma}-GCS{sub H} expression 72 h following the exposure (25 {mu}M). Experiments with cycloheximide revealed that the DPAsV-mediated reduction in {gamma}-GCS{sub H} was due to a post-translational modification. The results suggest that DPAsV causes caspase-3-dependent cleavage of {gamma}-GCS{sub H} regardless of Nrf2 activation in primary mouse hepatocytes.« less
  • The mechanisms of acetaminophen (APAP)-mediated hepatic oncotic necrosis have been extensively characterized. However, it was recently demonstrated that fed CD-1 mice have a transient caspase activation which initiates apoptosis. To evaluate these findings in more detail, outbred (Swiss Webster, SW) and inbred (C57BL/6) mice were treated with APAP with or without pan-caspase inhibitor and compared to the apoptosis model of galactosamine (GalN)/endotoxin (ET). Fasted or fed APAP-treated C57BL/6 mice showed no evidence of caspase-3 processing or activity. Interestingly, a minor, temporary increase in caspase-3 processing and activity (150% above baseline) was observed after APAP treatment only in fed SW mice.more » The degree of caspase-3 activation in SW mice after APAP was minor compared to that observed in GalN/ET-treated mice (1600% above baseline). The pancaspase inhibitor attenuated caspase activation and resulted in increased APAP-induced injury (plasma ALT, necrosis scoring). The caspase inhibitor did not affect apoptosis because regardless of treatment only < 0.5% of hepatocytes showed consistent apoptotic morphology after APAP. In contrast, > 20% apoptotic cells were observed in GalN/ET-treated mice. Presence of the caspase inhibitor altered hepatic glutathione levels in SW mice, which could explain the exacerbation of injury. Additionally, the infiltration of hepatic neutrophils was not altered by the fed state of either mouse strain. Conclusion: Minor caspase-3 activation without apoptotic cell death can be observed only in fed mice of some outbred strains. These findings suggest that although the severity of APAP-induced liver injury varies between fed and fasted animals, the mechanism of cell death does not fundamentally change. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer During acetaminophen overdose caspase-3 can be activated in fed mice of certain outbred strains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hepatic ATP levels are not the determining factor for caspase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caspase-3 activity does not result in increased hepatocellular apoptotic cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutrophil recruitment during acetaminophen occurs independently of nutritional status. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fed or fasted state does not alter the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced cell death.« less
  • The synthetic retinoid-related molecule CD437-induced apoptosis in human epithelial airway respiratory cells: the 16HBE bronchial cell line and normal nasal epithelial cells. CD437 caused apoptosis in S-phase cells and cell cycle arrest in S phase. Apoptosis was abolished by caspase-8 inhibitor z-IETD-fmk which preserved S-phase cells but was weakly inhibited by others selective caspase-inhibitors, indicating that caspase-8 activation was involved. z-VAD and z-IETD prevented the nuclear envelope fragmentation but did not block the chromatin condensation. The disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was also induced by CD437 treatment. The translocation of Bax to mitochondria was demonstrated, as well as the releasemore » of cytochrome c into the cytosol and of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocated into the nucleus. z-VAD and z-IETD did not inhibit mitochondrial depolarization, Bax translocation or release of cytochrome c and AIF from mitochondria. These results suggest that CD437-induced apoptosis is executed by two converging pathways. AIF release is responsible for chromatin condensation, the first stage of apoptotic cell, via a mitochondrial pathway independent of caspase. But final stage of apoptosis requires the caspase-8-dependent nuclear envelope fragmentation. In addition, using SP600125, JNK inhibitor, we demonstrated that CD437 activates the JNK-MAP kinase signaling pathway upstream to mitochondrial and caspase-8 pathways. Conversely, JNK pathway inhibition, which suppresses S-phase apoptosis, did not prevent cell cycle arrest within S phase, confirming that these processes are triggered by distinct mechanisms.« less
  • Dysregulation of apoptosis is involved in a wide spectrum of disease ranging from proliferative to degenerative disorders. An emerging area of study in apoptosis is the critical contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in both mitochondrial and ER specific apoptosis pathways. Here we show that brefeldin A and tunicamycin-mediated ER stress lead to caspase-dependent apoptosis involving caspase-2. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation indicate that caspase-2 is localized to the ER, and following ER stress, the processing of caspase-2 and -9 is an early event preceding the activation of caspase-3 and -7 and the cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerasemore » (PARP). Inhibition and silencing of either caspase-2 or caspase-9 suppress ER stress-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin V binding. Similarly, transduction with an adenovirus encoding either Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) protein HIAP1/c-IAP2 or HIAP2/c-IAP1 also suppresses ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, among HIAP1, HIAP2 and XIAP, only HIAP2 binds and inhibits caspase-2. Our results thus indicate a novel mechanism by which HIAP2 can regulate ER-initiated apoptosis by modulating the activity of caspase-2.« less