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Title: The liver X receptor agonist T0901317 acts as androgen receptor antagonist in human prostate cancer cells

Abstract

T0901317 is a potent non-steroidal synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. T0901317 blocked androgenic stimulation of the proliferation of androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells and androgenic suppression of the proliferation of androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, inhibited the transcriptional activation of an androgen-dependent reporter gene by androgen, and suppressed gene and protein expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a target gene of androgen receptor (AR) without affecting gene and protein expression of AR. T0901317 also inhibited binding of a radiolabeled androgen to AR, but inhibition was much weaker compared to the effect of the antiandrogens, bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide. The LXR agonist T0901317, therefore, acts as an antiandrogen in human prostate cancer cells.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. The Ben May Department for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, CIS W325F, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
  2. Department of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Science, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)
  3. The Ben May Department for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, CIS W325F, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States). E-mail: sliao@uchicago.edu
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20991360
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 357; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.116; PII: S0006-291X(07)00553-0; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ANDROGENS; ANTIANDROGENS; ANTIGENS; CARCINOMAS; CELL PROLIFERATION; GENES; INHIBITION; LIVER; PROSTATE; RECEPTORS; STIMULATION

Citation Formats

Chuu, Chih-pin, Chen, Rou-Yu, Hiipakka, Richard A., Kokontis, John M., Warner, Karen V., Xiang, Jialing, and Liao, Shutsung. The liver X receptor agonist T0901317 acts as androgen receptor antagonist in human prostate cancer cells. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.116.
Chuu, Chih-pin, Chen, Rou-Yu, Hiipakka, Richard A., Kokontis, John M., Warner, Karen V., Xiang, Jialing, & Liao, Shutsung. The liver X receptor agonist T0901317 acts as androgen receptor antagonist in human prostate cancer cells. United States. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.116.
Chuu, Chih-pin, Chen, Rou-Yu, Hiipakka, Richard A., Kokontis, John M., Warner, Karen V., Xiang, Jialing, and Liao, Shutsung. Fri . "The liver X receptor agonist T0901317 acts as androgen receptor antagonist in human prostate cancer cells". United States. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.116.
@article{osti_20991360,
title = {The liver X receptor agonist T0901317 acts as androgen receptor antagonist in human prostate cancer cells},
author = {Chuu, Chih-pin and Chen, Rou-Yu and Hiipakka, Richard A. and Kokontis, John M. and Warner, Karen V. and Xiang, Jialing and Liao, Shutsung},
abstractNote = {T0901317 is a potent non-steroidal synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. T0901317 blocked androgenic stimulation of the proliferation of androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells and androgenic suppression of the proliferation of androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, inhibited the transcriptional activation of an androgen-dependent reporter gene by androgen, and suppressed gene and protein expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a target gene of androgen receptor (AR) without affecting gene and protein expression of AR. T0901317 also inhibited binding of a radiolabeled androgen to AR, but inhibition was much weaker compared to the effect of the antiandrogens, bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide. The LXR agonist T0901317, therefore, acts as an antiandrogen in human prostate cancer cells.},
doi = {10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.116},
journal = {Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications},
number = 2,
volume = 357,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Fri Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPAR{gamma} ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells,more » these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA-based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPAR{gamma}. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest that both PPAR{gamma} and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.« less
  • Prostate cancer (CaP) bone metastasis is an early event that remains inactive until later-stage progression. Reduced levels of circulating androgens, due to andropause or androgen deprivation therapies, alter androgen receptor (AR) coactivator expression. Coactivators shift the balance towards enhanced AR-mediated gene transcription that promotes progression to androgen-resistance. Disruptions in coregulators may represent a molecular switch that reactivates latent bone metastasis. Changes in AR-mediated transcription in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-resistant C4-2 cells were analyzed for AR coregulator recruitment in co-culture with Saos-2 and THP-1. The Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteosarcoma and THP-1 cell line representing human monocytes were usedmore » to display osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Increased AR activity in androgen-resistant C4-2 was due to increased AR expression and SRC1/TIF2 recruitment and decreased SMRT/NCoR expression. AR activity in both cell types was decreased over 90% when co-cultured with Saos-2 or THP-1 due to dissociation of AR from the SRC1/TIF2 and SMRT/NCoR coregulators complex, in a ligand-dependent and cell-type specific manner. In the absence of androgens, Saos-2 decreased while THP-1 increased proliferation of LNCaP cells. In contrast, both Saos-2 and THP-1 decreased proliferation of C4-2 in absence and presence of androgens. Global changes in gene expression from both CaP cell lines identified potential cell cycle and androgen regulated genes as mechanisms for changes in cell proliferation and AR-mediated transactivation in the context of bone marrow stroma cells. - Highlights: • Decreased corepressor expression change AR in androgen-resistance prostate cancer. • Bone stroma-derived cells change AR coregulator recruitment in prostate cancer. • Bone stroma cells change cell proliferation in androgen-resistant cancer cells. • Global gene expression in CaP cells is modified by bone stroma cells in co-cultures. • Potential new multi-subunit coactivator complexes for AR in CaP bone metastasis.« less
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancers. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain incompletely understood. In previous reports, hepatocyte nuclear factor-3{alpha} (HNF-3{alpha}) has been shown to be expressed in the epithelia of the prostate gland, and has been determined to regulate the transcription of prostate-specific genes. In this study, we report that HNF-3{alpha} functions as a novel corepressor of AR in prostatic cells. HNF-3{alpha} represses AR transactivation on target promoters containing the androgen response element (ARE) in a dose-dependent manner. HNF-3{alpha} interacts physically with AR, and negatively regulates AR transactivation viamore » competition with AR coactivators, including GRIP1. Furthermore, HNF-3{alpha} overexpression reduces the androgen-induced expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in LNCaP cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that HNF-3{alpha} is a novel corepressor of AR, and predict its effects on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells.« less