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Title: Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds in solder-substrate reactions due to limited supply of the active element

Abstract

Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds has been reported in the literature for several solder/substrate systems, including SnAgCu soldered on Ni substrate, SnZn on Cu, high-Pb PbSn on Cu, and high-Pb PbSn on Ni. In this work, a unified thermodynamic argument is proposed to explain this rather unusual phenomenon. According to this argument, two necessary conditions must be met. The number one condition is that at least one of the reactive constituents of the solder must be present in a limited amount, and the second condition is that the soldering reaction has to be very sensitive to its concentration. With the growth of intermetallic, more and more atoms of this constituent are extracted out of the solder and incorporated into the intermetallic. As the concentration of this constituent decreases, the original intermetallic at the interface becomes a nonequilibrium phase, and the spalling of the original intermetallic occurs.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taiwan (China)
  2. (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20982836
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 101; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2717564; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; COPPER; COPPER ALLOYS; CRYSTAL GROWTH; INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS; LEAD ALLOYS; NICKEL; SILVER ALLOYS; SOLDERING; SUBSTRATES; TIN ALLOYS; ZINC ALLOYS

Citation Formats

Yang, S. C., Ho, C. E., Chang, C. W., Kao, C. R., and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds in solder-substrate reactions due to limited supply of the active element. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2717564.
Yang, S. C., Ho, C. E., Chang, C. W., Kao, C. R., & Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds in solder-substrate reactions due to limited supply of the active element. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2717564.
Yang, S. C., Ho, C. E., Chang, C. W., Kao, C. R., and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Sun . "Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds in solder-substrate reactions due to limited supply of the active element". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2717564.
@article{osti_20982836,
title = {Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds in solder-substrate reactions due to limited supply of the active element},
author = {Yang, S. C. and Ho, C. E. and Chang, C. W. and Kao, C. R. and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan},
abstractNote = {Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds has been reported in the literature for several solder/substrate systems, including SnAgCu soldered on Ni substrate, SnZn on Cu, high-Pb PbSn on Cu, and high-Pb PbSn on Ni. In this work, a unified thermodynamic argument is proposed to explain this rather unusual phenomenon. According to this argument, two necessary conditions must be met. The number one condition is that at least one of the reactive constituents of the solder must be present in a limited amount, and the second condition is that the soldering reaction has to be very sensitive to its concentration. With the growth of intermetallic, more and more atoms of this constituent are extracted out of the solder and incorporated into the intermetallic. As the concentration of this constituent decreases, the original intermetallic at the interface becomes a nonequilibrium phase, and the spalling of the original intermetallic occurs.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2717564},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 8,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}