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Title: Electrical characterization of alpha radiation-induced defects in p-GaAs grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition

Abstract

Investigations of the alpha particle irradiation-induced defects in low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition grown p-GaAs have been carried out. By employing deep-level transient spectroscopy, at least seven radiation-induced deep-level defects have been observed in the lower half of the band gap in the temperature range of 12-475 K. Double-correlation deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements show three prominent levels: two known radiation-induced levels namely, H{alpha}1 and H{alpha}5, and one inadvertent center HSA, present before irradiation, to exhibit a significant dependence of thermal emission rate on the junction electric field. For H{alpha}1 and HSA the field-enhanced emission data are well fitted with a Poole-Frenkel model, using a three-dimensional square-well potential with radius r=3.2 and 1.43 nm, respectively. The field effect for H{alpha}5 has been explained by a square-well potential in combination with a phonon-assisted tunneling process. Detailed data on the carrier capture cross section for all three levels have been obtained. The hole capture cross section for the levels H{alpha}1 and H{alpha}5 are found to be temperature independent, while for HSA, the hole capture data show a dependence on temperature. The dependence of hole capture cross section of HSA on temperature has been explained in terms of multiphonon capture mechanism, yielding a capture barriermore » of 0.13 eV and {sigma}({infinity})=1.5x10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. These analyses lead us to conclude that the levels H{alpha}1 and HSA are associated with a charged center, while the level H{alpha}5 is most likely a substitutional defect in GaAs.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20982762
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 101; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2710298; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALPHA PARTICLES; CAPTURE; CHARGE CARRIERS; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; CROSS SECTIONS; DEEP LEVEL TRANSIENT SPECTROSCOPY; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ENERGY GAP; FIELD EMISSION; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; HOLES; IRRADIATION; PHONONS; SQUARE-WELL POTENTIAL; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0000-0013 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0013-0065 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0065-0273 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; TUNNEL EFFECT

Citation Formats

Naz, Nazir A., Qurashi, Umar S., and Iqbal, M. Zafar. Electrical characterization of alpha radiation-induced defects in p-GaAs grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2710298.
Naz, Nazir A., Qurashi, Umar S., & Iqbal, M. Zafar. Electrical characterization of alpha radiation-induced defects in p-GaAs grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2710298.
Naz, Nazir A., Qurashi, Umar S., and Iqbal, M. Zafar. Thu . "Electrical characterization of alpha radiation-induced defects in p-GaAs grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2710298.
@article{osti_20982762,
title = {Electrical characterization of alpha radiation-induced defects in p-GaAs grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition},
author = {Naz, Nazir A. and Qurashi, Umar S. and Iqbal, M. Zafar},
abstractNote = {Investigations of the alpha particle irradiation-induced defects in low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition grown p-GaAs have been carried out. By employing deep-level transient spectroscopy, at least seven radiation-induced deep-level defects have been observed in the lower half of the band gap in the temperature range of 12-475 K. Double-correlation deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements show three prominent levels: two known radiation-induced levels namely, H{alpha}1 and H{alpha}5, and one inadvertent center HSA, present before irradiation, to exhibit a significant dependence of thermal emission rate on the junction electric field. For H{alpha}1 and HSA the field-enhanced emission data are well fitted with a Poole-Frenkel model, using a three-dimensional square-well potential with radius r=3.2 and 1.43 nm, respectively. The field effect for H{alpha}5 has been explained by a square-well potential in combination with a phonon-assisted tunneling process. Detailed data on the carrier capture cross section for all three levels have been obtained. The hole capture cross section for the levels H{alpha}1 and H{alpha}5 are found to be temperature independent, while for HSA, the hole capture data show a dependence on temperature. The dependence of hole capture cross section of HSA on temperature has been explained in terms of multiphonon capture mechanism, yielding a capture barrier of 0.13 eV and {sigma}({infinity})=1.5x10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. These analyses lead us to conclude that the levels H{alpha}1 and HSA are associated with a charged center, while the level H{alpha}5 is most likely a substitutional defect in GaAs.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2710298},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • This paper reports a detailed study of the effects of irradiation and thermal annealing on deep levels in Rh-doped p-type GaAs grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition, using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. It is found upon irradiation with alpha particles that, in addition to the radiation-induced defect peaks, all the Rh-related peaks observed in majority, as well as minority-carrier emission DLTS scans show an increase in their respective concentrations. The usually observed {alpha}-induced defects H{alpha}1, H{alpha}2, and H{alpha}3 are found to have lower introduction rates in Rh-doped samples, as compared to reference samples (not doped with Rh). Alpha-irradiationmore » has been found to decompose the two minority carrier emitting bands (one at low temperature {approx}150 K and the other at {approx}380 K) observed prior to irradiation into distinct peaks corresponding to deep levels Rh1 and Rh2 and EL2 and Rh3, respectively. A similar effect is also observed for the majority-carrier emitting band composed of hole emission from deep levels RhA and RhB, which separate out well upon irradiation. Further, from the double-correlation DLTS measurements, the emission rates of carriers from the radiation-enhanced peaks corresponding to deep levels Rh1, Rh2, Rh3, and RhC were found to be dependent on junction electric field. For RhC, the field dependence data have been analyzed in terms of the Poole-Frenkel model employing a 3-dimensional Coulomb potential with q = 2e (electronic charge). Temperature dependence of the hole capture cross-sections of the levels RhA and RhC was also studied quantitatively. The observed dependence of the hole capture cross-section of RhC on temperature can be interpreted in terms of multiphonon capture model, yielding a capture barrier of 0.2 eV and {sigma}({infinity}) = 2.3 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. The results of irradiation and isochronal thermal annealing study, in combination with the theoretical analysis of the field dependence of hole emission data, lead us to interpret the levels RhA and RhB as charged centers and probably complexes of arsenic anti-site defect (As{sub Ga}) with Rh-impurity, (As{sub Ga}-Rh). The levels Rh1 and Rh2 are also proposed to be complexes, albeit of a different type, of arsenic anti-site defects (As{sub Ga}) and Rh-impurity (As{sub Ga}-Rh), while the level RhC is likely to be a doubly-charged complex center composed of arsenic interstitial (I{sub As}) and Rh-impurity (I{sub As}-Rh).« less
  • The electrical properties, admittance spectra, microcathodoluminescence, and deep trap spectra of p-AlGaN films with an Al mole fraction up to 45% grown by both metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) were compared. The ionization energy of Mg increases from 0.15 to 0.17 eV in p-GaN to 0.3 eV in 45% Al p-AlGaN. In p-GaN films grown by MBE and MOCVD and in MOCVD grown p-AlGaN, we observed additional acceptors with a concentration an order lower than that of Mg acceptors, with a higher hole capture cross section and an ionization energy close to that ofmore » Mg. For some of the MBE grown p-AlGaN, we also detected the presence of additional acceptor centers, but in that case the centers were located near the p-AlGaN layer interface with the semi-insulating AlGaN buffer and showed activation energies considerably lower than those of Mg.« less
  • Traps of energy levels E{sub c}-0.26 and E{sub c}-0.61 eV have been identified as as-grown traps in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition by using deep level transient spectroscopy of the Schottky contacts fabricated by resistive evaporation. The additional traps of E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV have been observed in samples whose contacts are deposited by electron-beam evaporation. An increase in concentration of the E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV traps when approaching the interface between the contact and the GaN film supports our argument that these traps are induced by electron-beam irradiation. Conversely, the depth profiles ofmore » as-grown traps show different profiles between several samples with increased or uniform distribution in the near surface below 50 nm. Similar profiles are observed in GaN grown on a sapphire substrate. We conclude that the growth process causes these large concentrations of as-grown traps in the near-surface region. It is speculated that the finishing step in the growth process should be an essential issue in the investigation of the surface state of GaN.« less