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Title: Interface microstructure engineering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering for the enhancement of adhesion

Abstract

An excellent adhesion of hard coatings to steel substrates is paramount in practically all application areas. Conventional methods utilize Ar glow etching or cathodic arc discharge pretreatments that have the disadvantage of producing weak interfaces or adding droplets, respectively. One tool for interface engineering is high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS). HIPIMS is based on conventional sputtering with extremely high peak power densities reaching 3 kW cm{sup -2} at current densities of >2 A cm{sup -2}. HIPIMS of Cr and Nb was used to prepare interfaces on 304 stainless steel and M2 high speed steel (HSS). During the pretreatment, the substrates were biased to U{sub bias}=-600 V and U{sub bias}=-1000 V in the environment of a HIPIMS of Cr and Nb plasma. The bombarding flux density reached peak values of 300 mA cm{sup -2} and consisted of highly ionized metal plasma containing a high proportion of Cr{sup 1+} and Nb{sup 1+}. Pretreatments were also carried out with Ar glow discharge and filtered cathodic arc as comparison. The adhesion was evaluated for coatings consisting of a 0.3 {mu}m thick CrN base layer and a 4 {mu}m thick nanolayer stack of CrN/NbN with a period of 3.4 nm, hardness of HK{sub 0.025}=3100,more » and residual stress of -1.8 GPa. For HIPIMS of Cr pretreatment, the adhesion values on M2 HSS reached scratch test critical load values of L{sub C}=70 N, thus comparing well to L{sub C}=51 N for interfaces pretreated by arc discharge plasmas and to L{sub C}=25 N for Ar etching. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy studies revealed a clean interface and large areas of epitaxial growth in the case of HIPIMS pretreatment. The HIPIMS pretreatment promoted strong registry between the orientation of the coating and polycrystalline substrate grains due to the incorporation of metal ions and the preservation of crystallinity of the substrate. Evidence and conditions for the formation of cube-on-cube epitaxy and axiotaxy on steel and {gamma}-TiAl substrates are presented.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)
  2. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20982731
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 101; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2697052; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ADHESION; CHROMIUM NITRIDES; COATINGS; CURRENT DENSITY; DEPOSITION; DROPLETS; EPITAXY; ETCHING; FLUX DENSITY; GLOW DISCHARGES; HARDNESS; MICROSTRUCTURE; NIOBIUM NITRIDES; PLASMA; POLYCRYSTALS; PRESSURE RANGE GIGA PA; RESIDUAL STRESSES; SPUTTERING; STAINLESS STEEL-304; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Ehiasarian, A. P., Wen, J. G., Petrov, I., and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 and Materials Science Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801. Interface microstructure engineering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering for the enhancement of adhesion. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2697052.
Ehiasarian, A. P., Wen, J. G., Petrov, I., & Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 and Materials Science Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801. Interface microstructure engineering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering for the enhancement of adhesion. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2697052.
Ehiasarian, A. P., Wen, J. G., Petrov, I., and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 and Materials Science Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801. Thu . "Interface microstructure engineering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering for the enhancement of adhesion". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2697052.
@article{osti_20982731,
title = {Interface microstructure engineering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering for the enhancement of adhesion},
author = {Ehiasarian, A. P. and Wen, J. G. and Petrov, I. and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 and Materials Science Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801},
abstractNote = {An excellent adhesion of hard coatings to steel substrates is paramount in practically all application areas. Conventional methods utilize Ar glow etching or cathodic arc discharge pretreatments that have the disadvantage of producing weak interfaces or adding droplets, respectively. One tool for interface engineering is high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS). HIPIMS is based on conventional sputtering with extremely high peak power densities reaching 3 kW cm{sup -2} at current densities of >2 A cm{sup -2}. HIPIMS of Cr and Nb was used to prepare interfaces on 304 stainless steel and M2 high speed steel (HSS). During the pretreatment, the substrates were biased to U{sub bias}=-600 V and U{sub bias}=-1000 V in the environment of a HIPIMS of Cr and Nb plasma. The bombarding flux density reached peak values of 300 mA cm{sup -2} and consisted of highly ionized metal plasma containing a high proportion of Cr{sup 1+} and Nb{sup 1+}. Pretreatments were also carried out with Ar glow discharge and filtered cathodic arc as comparison. The adhesion was evaluated for coatings consisting of a 0.3 {mu}m thick CrN base layer and a 4 {mu}m thick nanolayer stack of CrN/NbN with a period of 3.4 nm, hardness of HK{sub 0.025}=3100, and residual stress of -1.8 GPa. For HIPIMS of Cr pretreatment, the adhesion values on M2 HSS reached scratch test critical load values of L{sub C}=70 N, thus comparing well to L{sub C}=51 N for interfaces pretreated by arc discharge plasmas and to L{sub C}=25 N for Ar etching. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy studies revealed a clean interface and large areas of epitaxial growth in the case of HIPIMS pretreatment. The HIPIMS pretreatment promoted strong registry between the orientation of the coating and polycrystalline substrate grains due to the incorporation of metal ions and the preservation of crystallinity of the substrate. Evidence and conditions for the formation of cube-on-cube epitaxy and axiotaxy on steel and {gamma}-TiAl substrates are presented.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2697052},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}