skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Mechanism of metal-semiconductor transition in electric properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes induced by low-energy electron irradiation

Abstract

Low-energy electron irradiation causes damage in single-walled carbon nanotubes and changes the electric behavior of a nanotube field-effect transistor from metallic to semiconducting at low temperature. The irradiation damage was found to form an energy barrier of several 10 meV in the nanotube channel. We show that the transition behavior can be reasonably explained by the barrier formation and gate-induced band bending.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20982683
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 101; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2434822; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CARBON; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; ELECTRON BEAMS; ELECTRONS; FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS; IRRADIATION; NANOTUBES; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS

Citation Formats

Kanzaki, Kenichi, Suzuki, Satoru, Inokawa, Hiroshi, Ono, Yukinori, Vijayaraghavan, Aravind, and Kobayashi, Yoshihiro. Mechanism of metal-semiconductor transition in electric properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes induced by low-energy electron irradiation. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2434822.
Kanzaki, Kenichi, Suzuki, Satoru, Inokawa, Hiroshi, Ono, Yukinori, Vijayaraghavan, Aravind, & Kobayashi, Yoshihiro. Mechanism of metal-semiconductor transition in electric properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes induced by low-energy electron irradiation. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2434822.
Kanzaki, Kenichi, Suzuki, Satoru, Inokawa, Hiroshi, Ono, Yukinori, Vijayaraghavan, Aravind, and Kobayashi, Yoshihiro. Thu . "Mechanism of metal-semiconductor transition in electric properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes induced by low-energy electron irradiation". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2434822.
@article{osti_20982683,
title = {Mechanism of metal-semiconductor transition in electric properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes induced by low-energy electron irradiation},
author = {Kanzaki, Kenichi and Suzuki, Satoru and Inokawa, Hiroshi and Ono, Yukinori and Vijayaraghavan, Aravind and Kobayashi, Yoshihiro},
abstractNote = {Low-energy electron irradiation causes damage in single-walled carbon nanotubes and changes the electric behavior of a nanotube field-effect transistor from metallic to semiconducting at low temperature. The irradiation damage was found to form an energy barrier of several 10 meV in the nanotube channel. We show that the transition behavior can be reasonably explained by the barrier formation and gate-induced band bending.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2434822},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Probing with a tip of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) was found to induce defects in the tubes. The primary defect formation by probing was enhanced with a rate proportional to tunnel-injected electron current above a sample-bias threshold of around +4 V. Scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements of local density of states revealed that the defects imaged by STM, presumably secondary defects stabilized at the test temperature (95 K), are accompanied by a localized bandgap of 0.7 eV, which may account for the reported metal-semiconductor conversion in SWCNT-based field-effect transistor that is induced by low-energy electronmore » irradiation.« less
  • The effect of bulk and surface excitations to inelastic scattering in low-energy electron beam irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is studied using the dielectric formalism. Calculations are based on a semiempirical dielectric response function for MWCNTs determined by means of a many-pole plasmon model with parameters adjusted to available experimental spectroscopic data under theoretical sum-rule constrains. Finite-size effects are considered in the context of electron gas theory via a boundary correction term in the plasmon dispersion relations, thus, allowing a more realistic extrapolation of the electronic excitation spectrum over the whole energy-momentum plane. Energy-loss differential and total inelastic scatteringmore » cross sections as a function of electron energy and distance from the surface, valid over the energy range {approx}50-30,000 eV, are calculated with the individual contribution of bulk and surface excitations separated and analyzed for the case of normally incident and escaping electrons. The sensitivity of the results to the various approximations for the spatial dispersion of the electronic excitations is quantified. Surface excitations are shown to have a strong influence upon the shape and intensity of the energy-loss differential cross section in the near surface region whereas the general notion of a spatially invariant inelastic mean free path inside the material is found to be of good approximation.« less
  • We have used an atomic-force microscope tip to mechanically buckle single-walled carbon nanotubes. The resistance of the induced defects ranged from 10 to 100 k{Omega} and varied with the local Fermi level, as determined by scanned-gate microscopy. By forming two closely spaced defects on metallic nanotubes, we defined quantum dots less than 100 nm in length. These devices exhibited single-electron charging behavior at temperatures up to {similar_to}165 K. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
  • Molecular dynamics studies are carried out to investigate electron-irradiation effects in single-walled carbon nanotubes. We have proposed a simulation model which includes the interaction between a high-energy incident electron and a carbon atom, based on Monte Carlo method using the elastic-scattering cross section. The atomic level behavior of a single-walled carbon nanotube under electron irradiation is demonstrated in nanosecond time scale. The incident electron energy, tube diameter, and tube temperature dependences of electron-irradiation effects are studied with the simulation.
  • Molecular dynamics simulation is carried out to investigate structural modifications of single-walled carbon nanotubes by electron irradiation. Electron irradiation effects are introduced by the Monte Carlo method using an elastic collision cross section. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to the analysis of structural modifications with electron beam such as cutting, shrinking, and bending. The behavior of the carbon atoms in the nanotube during the structural modification is revealed. The simulation results also show the variation of the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes by electron irradiation.