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Title: The effect of low-energy-ion irradiation on photoluminescence of porous silicon

Abstract

Porous silicon (PS) was irradiated by low-energy (800 eV) nitrogen or argon ions. The photoluminescence (PL) properties changed significantly after irradiation, namely, PL was first quenched and then recovered as the postirradiated PS stored in air. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy results indicate that the Si-N bonds were formed during low-energy-nitrogen-ion irradiation, while Raman scattering spectroscopy suggests the crystal structure of PS did not change during ion irradiation. The PL quenching is due to the defects created by ion irradiation, whereas the PL recovery originates from the oxidation of Si-H back bonds and the formation of radiative recombination centers; the Si-N bonds are helpful to obtain high PL intensity.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20982654
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 101; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2422795; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AIR; ARGON IONS; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; EV RANGE 100-1000; FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETERS; INFRARED SPECTRA; ION BEAMS; IRRADIATION; NITROGEN; NITROGEN IONS; OXIDATION; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; POROUS MATERIALS; QUENCHING; RAMAN EFFECT; RAMAN SPECTRA; RECOMBINATION; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SILICON; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Zhao, N. Q., Jin, Y., Du, X. W., and Fu, Y. S. The effect of low-energy-ion irradiation on photoluminescence of porous silicon. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2422795.
Zhao, N. Q., Jin, Y., Du, X. W., & Fu, Y. S. The effect of low-energy-ion irradiation on photoluminescence of porous silicon. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2422795.
Zhao, N. Q., Jin, Y., Du, X. W., and Fu, Y. S. Mon . "The effect of low-energy-ion irradiation on photoluminescence of porous silicon". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2422795.
@article{osti_20982654,
title = {The effect of low-energy-ion irradiation on photoluminescence of porous silicon},
author = {Zhao, N. Q. and Jin, Y. and Du, X. W. and Fu, Y. S.},
abstractNote = {Porous silicon (PS) was irradiated by low-energy (800 eV) nitrogen or argon ions. The photoluminescence (PL) properties changed significantly after irradiation, namely, PL was first quenched and then recovered as the postirradiated PS stored in air. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy results indicate that the Si-N bonds were formed during low-energy-nitrogen-ion irradiation, while Raman scattering spectroscopy suggests the crystal structure of PS did not change during ion irradiation. The PL quenching is due to the defects created by ion irradiation, whereas the PL recovery originates from the oxidation of Si-H back bonds and the formation of radiative recombination centers; the Si-N bonds are helpful to obtain high PL intensity.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2422795},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 2,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Ion irradiation was used to pattern a region of red-light emitting porous silicon by eliminating visible-light photoluminescence (PL). The PL peak wavelength is approximately 735 nm and shows little dependence on the excitation-light wavelength. The ratio of PL intensities for different excitation wavelengths was shown to be proportional to the ratio of the absorption coefficients. Below saturation, the integrated PL intensity increased linearly with excitation-light power density.
  • The effects of ion irradiation on porous Si (po-Si) photoluminescence (PL) are investigated to gain insight into the emission mechanism. Po-Si was obtained by standard electrochemical etching of p-doped Si(100) and the samples were aged for several weeks to achieve stability of the PL intensity. Specimens were progressively irradiated with H{sup +}, He{sup +}, or Ne{sup ++} ions followed by PL measurements. PL spectra were obtained as a function of the displacement per atom (DPA) parameter up to a DPA level of {approx}10{sup -2}, which was sufficient to nearly extinguish PL. The quenching behavior showed a strong dependence on themore » chemical nature of the implanted species. Within experimental error, the quenching efficiency was equivalent for He{sup +} and Ne{sup ++} irradiations, but was considerably higher for H{sup +} irradiation. Channeling spectrometry showed the efficiency to be correlated with the self-recovery of defects generated during irradiation. The observed PL quenching is associated with the creation of nonradiative recombination sites within the band gap, but not with Si nanostructure amorphization and/or surface oxygen removal. Significant recovery of quenched PL occurs over a period of 120 days for specimens that are stored in air, but not for samples that are stored in vacuum. These results demonstrate the importance and complexity of surface oxidation on the po-Si luminescence mechanism.« less
  • A large increase in the porosity of highly doped p-type silicon is observed at the end-of-range depth of high-energy ions after subsequent electrochemical anodization. This occurs under certain conditions of irradiation geometry and fluence, owing to the dual effects of increased wafer resistivity and a locally increased current density during anodization. This results in the creation of highly porous, sub-surface zones which emit photoluminescence with an intensity of more than three orders of magnitude greater than the surrounding mesoporous silicon, comparable to that produced by microporous silicon. This provides means of selectively enhancing and patterning the photoluminescence emission from micron-sizedmore » areas of porous silicon over a wide range of intensity.« less
  • The effect of gamma irradiation on the luminescence properties of porous silicon produced by the electrochemical technique is studied. Changes in the photoluminescence intensity between irradiation doses and over a period of several days after the last irradiation are recorded. The quenching of photoluminescence at low irradiation doses and recovery after further irradiation are registered. It is found that porous silicon is strongly oxidized after gamma irradiation and the oxidation process continues for several days after irradiation. It is conceived that the change in the photoluminescence spectra and intensity of porous silicon after gamma irradiation is caused by a changemore » in the passivation type of the porous surface: instead of hydrogen passivation, more stable oxygen passivation is observed. To stabilize the photoluminescence spectra of porous silicon, the use of fullerenes is proposed. No considerable changes in the photoluminescence spectra during irradiation and up to 18 days after irradiation are detected in a porous silicon sample with a thermally deposited fullerene layer. It is shown that porous silicon samples with a deposited C{sub 60} layer are stable to gamma irradiation and oxidation.« less
  • An experimental study of the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) of porous silicon (PSi) prepared from an anodic dissolution of Si at low HF concentration (12.5%) of p-type (100) 0.01, 1 and 10 {Omega} cm substrates as a function of substrate resistivity and etching current density has been performed. Based on the experimental results a photoluminescence efficiency diagram is proposed. Etching of p{sup +}-type silicon samples without light illumination produces PSi layers whose PL spectra show interference fringes. Comparison of the fringes in PL and in light reflectivity demonstrates unambiguously that they originate from the interference of the light reflected atmore » the PSi/bulk Si interface and depend on the thickness of the PSi layer. The intensity and frequency of the interference fringes are found to be strongly dependent on the anodization current. Implications of PSi layer fabrication at low HF concentration are discussed.« less