skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator

Abstract

Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road MS 1123, Palo Alto, California 94304-1100 (United States)
  2. (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20982280
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. A; Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032334; (c) 2007 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CHAOS THEORY; COMMUNICATIONS; ENTROPY; MULTI-PHOTON PROCESSES; PHOTONS; POLARIZATION; QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY; QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT; QUANTUM INFORMATION; QUANTUM MECHANICS; QUBITS; RANDOMNESS; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Fiorentino, M., Santori, C., Spillane, S. M., Beausoleil, R. G., Munro, W. J., and Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ. Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.032334.
Fiorentino, M., Santori, C., Spillane, S. M., Beausoleil, R. G., Munro, W. J., & Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ. Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.032334.
Fiorentino, M., Santori, C., Spillane, S. M., Beausoleil, R. G., Munro, W. J., and Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ. Thu . "Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.032334.
@article{osti_20982280,
title = {Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator},
author = {Fiorentino, M. and Santori, C. and Spillane, S. M. and Beausoleil, R. G. and Munro, W. J. and Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ},
abstractNote = {Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.032334},
journal = {Physical Review. A},
number = 3,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The existence of unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is excluded by the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem. Here we look for the second-best: a QBC protocol that can defeat certain quantum attacks. By breaking the knowledge symmetry between the participants with quantum algorithm, a QBC protocol is proposed and is proven to be secure against a major kind of coherent attacks - the dummy attack, in which the participant makes an empty promise instead of committing to a specific bit. Therefore it surpasses previous QBC protocols which are secure against individual attacks only.
  • A 48-bit pseudo-random number generator, suitable for several computers, was tested statistically for randomness to determine its adequacy for use in Monte Carlo programs. Frequency tests, distributions of certain loworder moments, runs up and down, and runs above and below the mean were applied to one- half million generated numbers lying within the interval (0, 1) and to three sets of integers obtained from specified bits within the generated numbers. These tests substantiated the randomness of all numbers except for the set of integers coming from the least significant bits. (auth)
  • We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon.more » FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.« less
  • The shot noise of vacuum states is a kind of quantum noise and is totally random. In this paper a nondeterministic random number generation scheme based on measuring the shot noise of vacuum states is presented and experimentally demonstrated. We use a homodyne detector to measure the shot noise of vacuum states. Considering that the frequency bandwidth of our detector is limited, we derive the optimal sampling rate so that sampling points have the least correlation with each other. We also choose a method to extract random numbers from sampling values, and prove that the influence of classical noise canmore » be avoided with this method so that the detector does not have to be shot-noise limited. The random numbers generated with this scheme have passed ent and diehard tests.« less
  • We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.