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Title: Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator

Abstract

Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road MS 1123, Palo Alto, California 94304-1100 (United States)
  2. (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20982280
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. A; Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032334; (c) 2007 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CHAOS THEORY; COMMUNICATIONS; ENTROPY; MULTI-PHOTON PROCESSES; PHOTONS; POLARIZATION; QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY; QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT; QUANTUM INFORMATION; QUANTUM MECHANICS; QUBITS; RANDOMNESS; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Fiorentino, M., Santori, C., Spillane, S. M., Beausoleil, R. G., Munro, W. J., and Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ. Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.032334.
Fiorentino, M., Santori, C., Spillane, S. M., Beausoleil, R. G., Munro, W. J., & Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ. Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.032334.
Fiorentino, M., Santori, C., Spillane, S. M., Beausoleil, R. G., Munro, W. J., and Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ. Thu . "Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.032334.
@article{osti_20982280,
title = {Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator},
author = {Fiorentino, M. and Santori, C. and Spillane, S. M. and Beausoleil, R. G. and Munro, W. J. and Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ},
abstractNote = {Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.032334},
journal = {Physical Review. A},
number = 3,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}