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Title: Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection

Abstract

We report theoretically on a pure frequency-induced polarization bistability in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the master laser light polarization is orthogonal to that of the slave VCSEL. As the frequency detuning is scanned from negative to positive values and for a fixed injected power, the VCSEL exhibits two successive and possibly bistable polarization switchings. The first switching (from the slave laser polarization to the injected light polarization) exhibits a bistable region whose width is maximum for a given value of the injected power. Such a dependency of hysteresis width on the injected power is similar to that recently found experimentally by Hong et al.[Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000)]. The bistability accompanying the second switching (from the injected light polarization back to the slave laser free-running polarization) exhibits, however, significantly different features related to the occurrence of optical chaos. Interestingly, the width of the bistable region can be tuned over a large range not only by modifying the injection parameters but also by modifying the device parameters, in particular the VCSEL linewidth enhancement factor.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Supelec, LMOPS CNRS UMR-7132, Unite de Recherche Commune Supelec et Universite de Metz, Rue Edouard Belin 2, F-57070 Metz (France)
  2. (TW-TONA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
  3. Department of Applied Physics and Photonics, (TW-TONA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20982180
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. A; Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.023804; (c) 2007 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; BEAMS; CHAOS THEORY; ELECTRONS; HYSTERESIS; LASERS; POLARIZATION; SURFACES; SWITCHES

Citation Formats

Gatare, I., Department of Applied Physics and Photonics,, Panajotov, K., and Sciamanna, M. Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.023804.
Gatare, I., Department of Applied Physics and Photonics,, Panajotov, K., & Sciamanna, M. Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.023804.
Gatare, I., Department of Applied Physics and Photonics,, Panajotov, K., and Sciamanna, M. Thu . "Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.023804.
@article{osti_20982180,
title = {Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection},
author = {Gatare, I. and Department of Applied Physics and Photonics, and Panajotov, K. and Sciamanna, M.},
abstractNote = {We report theoretically on a pure frequency-induced polarization bistability in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the master laser light polarization is orthogonal to that of the slave VCSEL. As the frequency detuning is scanned from negative to positive values and for a fixed injected power, the VCSEL exhibits two successive and possibly bistable polarization switchings. The first switching (from the slave laser polarization to the injected light polarization) exhibits a bistable region whose width is maximum for a given value of the injected power. Such a dependency of hysteresis width on the injected power is similar to that recently found experimentally by Hong et al.[Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000)]. The bistability accompanying the second switching (from the injected light polarization back to the slave laser free-running polarization) exhibits, however, significantly different features related to the occurrence of optical chaos. Interestingly, the width of the bistable region can be tuned over a large range not only by modifying the injection parameters but also by modifying the device parameters, in particular the VCSEL linewidth enhancement factor.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.023804},
journal = {Physical Review. A},
number = 2,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • We perform a theoretical investigation of the polarization dynamics in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the injected field has a linear polarization (LP) orthogonal to that of the free-running VCSEL. In agreement with previous experiments [Z. G. Pan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999 (1993)], an increase of the injection strength may lead to a polarization switching accompanied by an injection locking. We find that this route to polarization switching is typically accompanied by a cascade of bifurcations to wave-mixing dynamics and time-periodic and possibly chaotic regimes. A detailed mapping of the polarizationmore » dynamics in the plane of the injection parameters (detuning, injection strength) unveils a large richness of dynamical scenarios. Of particular interest is the existence of another injection-locked solution for which the two LP modes both lock to the master laser frequency, i.e., an elliptically polarized injection-locked (EPIL) steady state. Modern continuation techniques allow us to unveil an unfolding mechanism of the EPIL solution as the detuning varies and also to link the existence of the EPIL solution to a resonance condition between the master laser frequency and the free-running frequency of the normally depressed LP mode in the slave laser. We furthermore report an additional case of bistability, in which the EPIL solution may coexist with the second injection-locked solution (the one being locked to the master polarization). This case of bistability is a result of the interaction between optical injection and the two-polarization-mode characteristics of VCSEL devices.« less
  • We unveil the bifurcations underlying polarization switching and injection locking in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser subject to optical injection. A Hopf bifurcation, not reported for conventional edge-emitting lasers, delimits the injection locking region and influences the polarization switching conditions. We furthermore theoretically show and experimentally observe periodic dynamics at the relaxation oscillation frequency in the noninjected mode together with wave-mixing dynamics in the injected mode. These dynamics precede the polarization switching leading to injection locking and are attributed to a torus bifurcation arising on a two-polarization mode solution.
  • We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the residence time distribution (RTD) of the polarization mode-hopping regime in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) subject to optical feedback. The RTD exhibits discontinuity and oscillations, as a result of the fast intensity oscillations at the delay time that accompany the slow mode hopping. We furthermore show numerically that an external noise source on the injection current allows observation of a coherence resonance phenomenon in VCSELs induced by time-delayed feedback.
  • The emission characteristics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an external cavity with a diffraction grating as a frequency-selective element are theoretically analyzed. We introduce envelope functions for the set of external-cavity modes based on the loci of modes with extremal gain or frequency in the proper parameter space. Replacing the set of discrete stationary solutions by these envelope functions, simple analytical expressions are derived for the existence of bistability between a lasing state strongly affected by the feedback and a state close to the solitary laser emission (in particular the nonlasing state) and for the frequency ofmore » the VCSEL in the grating-controlled regime. It is shown how the initial jump of the laser intensity during abrupt turn-on can be maximized. By a control of the feedback change, the width of the hysteresis loop can be increased significantly. The scheme under consideration can be useful in all-optical photonic switching applications.« less
  • Polarization selection in small-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers is studied experimentally in dependence of injection current and substrate temperature in the vicinity of the minimum threshold condition. Polarization switching from the low to the high frequency fundamental spatial mode is demonstrated. The effective birefringence displays a minimum in the transition region. The observation of dynamical transition states hints to the relevance of nonlinear effects. A comparison to the predictions of the San Miguel{endash}Feng{endash}Moloney model based on phase-amplitude coupling is given. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.