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Title: Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) induced calcium signals and cytotoxicity in two human cell lines: SY-5Y neuroblastoma and 293 embryonic kidney (HEK)

Abstract

Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has anticancer properties; however, its use also leads to neuro-, hepato- or nephro-toxicity, and therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} toxicity. We studied As{sub 2}O{sub 3} influence on intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) homeostasis of human neuroblastoma SY-5Y and embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293).We also relate the As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} modifications with cytotoxicity. We used Ca{sup 2+} sensitive dyes (fluo-4 and rhod-2) combined with laser scanning microscopy or fluorescence activated cell sorting to measure Ca{sup 2+} changes during the application of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} and we approach evaluation of cytotoxicity. As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1 {mu}M) increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in SY-5Y and HEK 293 cells. Three forms of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevations were found: (1) steady-state increases (2) transient [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevations and (3) Ca{sup 2+}-spikes. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} modifications were independent from extracellular Ca{sup 2+} but dependent on internal calcium stores. The effect was not reversible. Inositol triphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and ryanodine (Ry) receptors are involved in regulation of signals induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 2-APB and dantrolene significantly reduced the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-rise (p < 0.001, t-test) but did not completely abolish [Ca{sup 2+}]{submore » i}-elevation or spiking. This indicates that other Ca{sup 2+} regulating mechanisms are involved. In cytotoxicity tests As{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly reduced cell viability in both cell types. Staining with Hoechst 33342 showed occurrence of apoptosis and DNA damage. Our data suggest that [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is an important messenger in As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced cell death.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Institut fuer Physiologie, Universitaetsklinikum, Universitaet Duisburg Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany)
  2. Institut fuer Physiologie, Universitaetsklinikum, Universitaet Duisburg Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany). E-mail: Dietrich.Buesselberg@uni-due.de
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20976921
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 220; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2007.01.022; PII: S0041-008X(07)00054-3; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APOPTOSIS; ARSENATES; ARSENIC; ARSENIC OXIDES; CALCIUM; CALCIUM IONS; DNA DAMAGES; DYES; EVALUATION; FLUORESCENCE; HOMEOSTASIS; INOSITOL; KIDNEYS; LASERS; MICROSCOPY; RECEPTORS; STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS; TOXICITY; TUMOR CELLS

Citation Formats

Florea, Ana-Maria, Splettstoesser, Frank, and Buesselberg, Dietrich. Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) induced calcium signals and cytotoxicity in two human cell lines: SY-5Y neuroblastoma and 293 embryonic kidney (HEK). United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2007.01.022.
Florea, Ana-Maria, Splettstoesser, Frank, & Buesselberg, Dietrich. Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) induced calcium signals and cytotoxicity in two human cell lines: SY-5Y neuroblastoma and 293 embryonic kidney (HEK). United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2007.01.022.
Florea, Ana-Maria, Splettstoesser, Frank, and Buesselberg, Dietrich. Tue . "Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) induced calcium signals and cytotoxicity in two human cell lines: SY-5Y neuroblastoma and 293 embryonic kidney (HEK)". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2007.01.022.
@article{osti_20976921,
title = {Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) induced calcium signals and cytotoxicity in two human cell lines: SY-5Y neuroblastoma and 293 embryonic kidney (HEK)},
author = {Florea, Ana-Maria and Splettstoesser, Frank and Buesselberg, Dietrich},
abstractNote = {Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has anticancer properties; however, its use also leads to neuro-, hepato- or nephro-toxicity, and therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} toxicity. We studied As{sub 2}O{sub 3} influence on intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) homeostasis of human neuroblastoma SY-5Y and embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293).We also relate the As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} modifications with cytotoxicity. We used Ca{sup 2+} sensitive dyes (fluo-4 and rhod-2) combined with laser scanning microscopy or fluorescence activated cell sorting to measure Ca{sup 2+} changes during the application of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} and we approach evaluation of cytotoxicity. As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1 {mu}M) increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in SY-5Y and HEK 293 cells. Three forms of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevations were found: (1) steady-state increases (2) transient [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevations and (3) Ca{sup 2+}-spikes. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} modifications were independent from extracellular Ca{sup 2+} but dependent on internal calcium stores. The effect was not reversible. Inositol triphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and ryanodine (Ry) receptors are involved in regulation of signals induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 2-APB and dantrolene significantly reduced the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-rise (p < 0.001, t-test) but did not completely abolish [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-elevation or spiking. This indicates that other Ca{sup 2+} regulating mechanisms are involved. In cytotoxicity tests As{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly reduced cell viability in both cell types. Staining with Hoechst 33342 showed occurrence of apoptosis and DNA damage. Our data suggest that [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is an important messenger in As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced cell death.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2007.01.022},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 3,
volume = 220,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Two uranyl sulfate hydrates, (H3O)2[(UO2)2(SO4)3(H2O)]·7H2O (NDUS) and (H3O)2[(UO2)2(SO4)3(H2O)]·4H2O (NDUS1), and one uranyl selenate-selenite [C5H6N][(UO2)(SeO4)(HSeO3)] (NDUSe), were obtained and their crystal structures solved. NDUS and NDUSe result from reactions in highly acidic media in the presence of L-cystine at 373 K. NDUS crystallized in a closed vial at 278 K after 5 days and NDUSe in an open beaker at 278 K after 2 weeks. NDUS1 was synthesized from aqueous solution at room temperature over the course of a month. NDUS, NDUS1, and NDUSe crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n, a = 15.0249(4) Å,b = 9.9320(2) Å, c = 15.6518(4)more » Å, β = 112.778(1)°, V = 2153.52(9) Å3,Z = 4, the tetragonal space group P43212, a = 10.6111(2) Å,c = 31.644(1) Å, V = 3563.0(2) Å3, Z = 8, and in the monoclinic space group P21/n, a = 8.993(3) Å, b = 13.399(5) Å, c = 10.640(4) Å,β = 108.230(4)°, V = 1217.7(8) Å3, Z = 4, respectively.The structural units of NDUS and NDUS1 are two-dimensional uranyl sulfate sheets with a U/S ratio of 2/3. The structural unit of NDUSe is a two-dimensional uranyl selenate-selenite sheets with a U/Se ratio of 1/2. In-situ reaction of the L-cystine ligands gives two distinct products for the different acids used here. Where sulfuric acid is used, only H3O+ cations are located in the interlayer space, where they balance the charge of the sheets, whereas where selenic acid is used, interlayer C5H6N+ cations result from the cyclization of the carboxyl groups of L-cystine, balancing the charge of the sheets.« less
  • Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) acutely at high levels, or via chronic low-level dietary exposure from daily fish consumption, can lead to adverse neurological effects in both the adult and developing conceptus. To determine the impact of variable DNA repair capacity, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidatively damaged DNA in the mechanism of toxicity, transgenic human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells that stably express either human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOgg1) or its bacterial homolog, formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg), which primarily repair the oxidative lesion 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), were used to assess the in vitro effects of MeHg. Western blottingmore » confirmed the expression of hOgg1 or Fpg in both the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments of their respective cell lines. Following acute (1–2 h) incubations with 0–10 μM MeHg, concentration-dependent decreases in clonogenic survival and cell growth accompanied concentration-dependent increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, ROS formation, 8-oxodG levels and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, consistent with the onset of cytotoxicity. Paradoxically, hOgg1- and Fpg-expressing HEK 293 cells were more sensitive than wild-type cells stably transfected with the empty vector control to MeHg across all cellular and biochemical parameters, exhibiting reduced clonogenic survival and cell growth, and increased LDH release and DNA damage. Accordingly, upregulation of specific components of the base excision repair (BER) pathway may prove deleterious potentially due to the absence of compensatory enhancement of downstream processes to repair toxic intermediary abasic sites. Thus, interindividual variability in DNA repair activity may constitute an important risk factor for environmentally-initiated, oxidatively damaged DNA and its pathological consequences. - Highlights: • hOgg1 and Fpg repair oxidatively damaged DNA. • hOgg1- and Fpg-expressing cells are more sensitive to MeHg toxicity. • Enhanced sensitivity is likely due to an accumulation of toxic repair intermediates. • Interindividual variability in DNA repair activity may modulate toxicological risk.« less
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