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Title: The combination of donepezil and procyclidine protects against soman-induced seizures in rats

Abstract

Current treatment of nerve agent poisoning consists of prophylactic administration of pyridostigmine and therapy using atropine, an oxime and a benzodiazepine. Pyridostigmine does however not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier giving ineffective protection of Brain against centrally mediated seizure activity. In this study, we have evaluated donepezil hydrochloride, a partial reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) clinically used for treating Alzheimer's disease, in combination with procyclidine, used in treatment of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, as prophylaxis against intoxication by the nerve agent soman. The results demonstrated significant protective efficacy of donepezil (2.5 mg/kg) combined with procyclidine (3 or 6 mg/kg) when given prophylactically against a lethal dose of soman (1.6x LD{sub 50}) in Wistar rats. No neuropathological changes were found in rats treated with this combination 48 h after soman intoxication. Six hours after soman exposure cerebral AChE activity and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration was 5% and 188% of control, respectively. The ACh concentration had returned to basal levels 24 h after soman intoxication, while AChE activity had recovered to 20% of control. Loss of functioning muscarinic ACh receptors (17%) but not nicotinic receptors was evident at this time point. The recovery in brain AChE activity seen in our study may bemore » due to the reversible binding of donepezil to the enzyme. Donepezil is well tolerated in humans, and a combination of donepezil and procyclidine may prove useful as an alternative to the currently used prophylaxis against nerve agent intoxication.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1112, N-0317 Oslo (Norway). E-mail: k.h.haug@medisin.uio.no
  2. Protection Division, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller (Norway)
  3. Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1112, N-0317 Oslo (Norway)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20976906
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 220; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.023; PII: S0041-008X(06)00501-1; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACETYLCHOLINE; ATROPINE; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BRAIN; ENZYMES; LETHAL DOSES; NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; POISONING; PREVENTIVE MEDICINE; RATS; RECEPTORS; SAFETY; THERAPY

Citation Formats

Haug, Kristin Huse, Myhrer, Trond, and Fonnum, Frode. The combination of donepezil and procyclidine protects against soman-induced seizures in rats. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.023.
Haug, Kristin Huse, Myhrer, Trond, & Fonnum, Frode. The combination of donepezil and procyclidine protects against soman-induced seizures in rats. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.023.
Haug, Kristin Huse, Myhrer, Trond, and Fonnum, Frode. Sun . "The combination of donepezil and procyclidine protects against soman-induced seizures in rats". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.023.
@article{osti_20976906,
title = {The combination of donepezil and procyclidine protects against soman-induced seizures in rats},
author = {Haug, Kristin Huse and Myhrer, Trond and Fonnum, Frode},
abstractNote = {Current treatment of nerve agent poisoning consists of prophylactic administration of pyridostigmine and therapy using atropine, an oxime and a benzodiazepine. Pyridostigmine does however not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier giving ineffective protection of Brain against centrally mediated seizure activity. In this study, we have evaluated donepezil hydrochloride, a partial reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) clinically used for treating Alzheimer's disease, in combination with procyclidine, used in treatment of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, as prophylaxis against intoxication by the nerve agent soman. The results demonstrated significant protective efficacy of donepezil (2.5 mg/kg) combined with procyclidine (3 or 6 mg/kg) when given prophylactically against a lethal dose of soman (1.6x LD{sub 50}) in Wistar rats. No neuropathological changes were found in rats treated with this combination 48 h after soman intoxication. Six hours after soman exposure cerebral AChE activity and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration was 5% and 188% of control, respectively. The ACh concentration had returned to basal levels 24 h after soman intoxication, while AChE activity had recovered to 20% of control. Loss of functioning muscarinic ACh receptors (17%) but not nicotinic receptors was evident at this time point. The recovery in brain AChE activity seen in our study may be due to the reversible binding of donepezil to the enzyme. Donepezil is well tolerated in humans, and a combination of donepezil and procyclidine may prove useful as an alternative to the currently used prophylaxis against nerve agent intoxication.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.023},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 2,
volume = 220,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Ozone is a strong oxidizing agent that can cause lung damage and edema. There is evidence that it does so by causing peroxidation of membrane lipids. However, the elevation in lung activity of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, ZnSOD), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) during exposure to ozone suggests that increased production of superoxide could contribute to lung edema caused by ozone. This latter observation, and preliminary evidence that treatment of rats with endotoxin elevates lung activity of MnSOD without elevation of the activity of Cu, ZnSOD, catalase (CAT), or glutathione peroxidase (GP), led to the present study. We treatedmore » rats with endotoxin, exposed them to different concentrations of ozone, measured lung wet weight to dry weight ratio, thiobarbituric acid-reactive material (TBAR), and assayed lung tissue for Cu, ZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GP activity. Our major findings are, (1) a strongly edemogenic concentration of ozone-lowered MnSOD activity; (2) endotoxin treatment of air-breathing rats did not decrease lipid peroxidation as indicated by the lung concentration of TBAR; (3) induction of increased MnSOD activity in lung by treatment with endotoxin was associated with virtually complete protection against an otherwise edemogenic concentration of ozone, with less lipid peroxidation, and with less loss of weight; and (4) this protection occurred without elevated Cu, ZnSOD, CAT, or GP activity.« less
  • Background and purpose: Arsenic exposure frequently leads to reproductive failures by disrupting the rat uterine histology, hormonal integrity and estrogen signaling components of the rat uterus, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was assessed as a prospective therapeutic agent for reversing reproductive disorders. Experimental approach: Rats exposed to arsenic for 28 days were allowed to either recover naturally or were treated simultaneously with ATRA for 28 days or treatment continued up to 56 days. Hematoxylin-eosin double staining was used to evaluate changes in the uterine histology. Serum gonadotropins and estradiol were assayed by ELISA. Expression ofmore » the estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}), an estrogen responsive gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, was assessed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Key results: ATRA ameliorated sodium arsenite-induced decrease in circulating estradiol and gonadotropin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, along with recovery of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands. Concomitant up regulation of ER{alpha}, VEGF, cyclin D1, CDK4 and Ki-67 was also observed to be more prominent for ATRA-treated rats as compared to the rats that were allowed to recover naturally for 56 days. Conclusions and implications: Collectively, the results reveal that ATRA reverses arsenic-induced disruption of the circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol, and degeneration of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands of the rat uterus, indicating resumption of their functional status. Since structural and functional maintenance of the pubertal uterus is under the influence of estradiol, ATRA consequently up regulated the estrogen receptor and resumed cellular proliferation, possibly by an antioxidant therapeutic approach against arsenic toxicity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic disrupts the uterine histology and estrogen signaling components in rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in estradiol and gonadotropin levels, ER{alpha}, VEGF and cell cycle proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic disrupts the above components by inhibiting antioxidant defense mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATRA treatment led to recovery of uterine histology and ER{alpha} signaling components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitamin A in diet is a promising cure for arsenic-induced reproductive failures.« less
  • Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose ofmore » cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is partially involved in the pathogenesis of cispaltin-induced nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Pre-treatment with cardamonin showed a promising nephroprotection against cisplatin. • Cardamonin attenuated cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. • Cardamonin reduced apoptotic cell death in kidneys of cisplatin treated rats. • Cardamonin enhanced survival factors in cisplatin treated rats. • Cardamonin was shown to be NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) inhibitor.« less
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  • It was attempted to clarify the behavior of the-brain of the rat during the early period after irradation. An excitation method involving pharmacologically induced seizures was used for the tests; seizures represent an excellent tool for studying the interaction between defense mechanisms and injury factors because they interfere with the equilibrium. Male white rats were exposed to whole-body x radiation of 750 r, carrying out the tests 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, group contained animals injected with 60 or 100 mg/kg of corasolum, and control specimens that were injected but not irradiated. It was found that during the firstmore » 4 hours after exposure, the seizure reaction following the injection of corasolum was accelerated, resulting in higher intensity and increased mortality. The difference between irradiated and unirradiated animals tended to decrease during the 6 a 8 hours after exposure but after 24 hours an accelerated reaction was noted again. During the period ranging from 36 to 72 hours, a greater difference in the reaction was noted between the two doses: the 60 mg/kg body weight dose resulted in a decrease of the differential behavior of irradiated and unirradiated specimens while the 100 mg/kg dose caused a general weakening of the reaction. (TTT)« less