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Title: Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro

Abstract

Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+}, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)
  2. (Ireland)
  3. Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland) and Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland). E-mail: j.heffron@ucc.ie
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20976872
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 219; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.004; PII: S0041-008X(06)00470-4; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACETATES; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; BIOLOGICAL MARKERS; BLOOD; CALCIUM; CATTLE; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; CHRONIC EXPOSURE; GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY; GLUTATHIONE; HEXANE; IN VITRO; KETONES; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE; LEAD SULFIDES; ORGANIC SOLVENTS; OXYGEN; PHOSPHATES; PHOSPHORYLATION; PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES; POLLUTANTS; TOLUENE; TOXICITY; VOLATILITY

Citation Formats

McDermott, Catherine, Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Cork, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Allshire, Ashley, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Pelt, Frank N.A.M. van, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, and Heffron, James J.A. Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.004.
McDermott, Catherine, Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Cork, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Allshire, Ashley, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Pelt, Frank N.A.M. van, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, & Heffron, James J.A. Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.004.
McDermott, Catherine, Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Cork, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Allshire, Ashley, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Pelt, Frank N.A.M. van, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, and Heffron, James J.A. Thu . "Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.004.
@article{osti_20976872,
title = {Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro},
author = {McDermott, Catherine and Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Cork and Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork and Allshire, Ashley and Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork and Pelt, Frank N.A.M. van and Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork and Heffron, James J.A.},
abstractNote = {Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+}, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.004},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 1,
volume = 219,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
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  • Three volatile nitrogen-containing compounds, 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP), pyridine and pyrrole, were investigated as potential tracers for determining the contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor environments with smoking. The source emission rates of the three tracers and ten selected VOCs in ETS were first measured in a room-size environmental chamber for a market-weighted selection of six commercial cigarettes. The ratios of the emission rates of the tracers to the emission rates of the selected VOCs were calculated and compared among the six brands. The utility of the tracers was then evaluated in amore » field study conducted in five office buildings. Samples for VOCs were collected in designated smoking areas and adjoining non-smoking areas, air change rates were measured, and smoking rates were documented. Concentrations of the three tracers in the smoking areas were calculated using a mass-balance model and compared to their measured concentrations. Based on this comparison, 3-EP was selected as the most suitable tracer for the volatile components of ETS, although pyrrole is also potentially useful. Using 3-EP as the tracer, the contributions of ETS to the measured concentrations of the selected VOCs in the smoking areas were estimated by apportionment. ETS was estimated to contribute 57 to 84 percent (4.1 to 26 pg m{sup -3}) of the formaldehyde concentrations, 44 to 69 percent (0.9 to 5.8 pg m{sup -3}) of the 2-butanone concentrations, 37 to 58 percent (1.3 to 8.2 pg m{sup -3}) of the benzene concentrations, and 20 to 69 percent (0.5 to 3.0 pg m{sup -3}) of the styrene concentrations. The fractional contributions of ETS to the concentrations of acetone, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers and d-limonene were all less than 50 percent.« less