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Title: The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

Abstract

Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is requiredmore » for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Toxicology Unit, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability and Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)
  2. Toxicology Unit, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability and Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom). E-mail: F.M.Williams@ncl.ac.uk
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20976846
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 218; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.019; PII: S0041-008X(06)00350-4; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABSORPTION; ALDEHYDES; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; CELL MEMBRANES; ETHERS; GLYCOLS; HOUSEHOLDS; HYDRATION; IN VITRO; LIPIDS; METABOLISM; METABOLITES; PERMEABILITY; RATS; RISK ASSESSMENT; SKIN; SOLVENTS; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Traynor, Matthew J., Wilkinson, Simon C., and Williams, Faith M. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.019.
Traynor, Matthew J., Wilkinson, Simon C., & Williams, Faith M. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.019.
Traynor, Matthew J., Wilkinson, Simon C., and Williams, Faith M. Mon . "The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.019.
@article{osti_20976846,
title = {The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers},
author = {Traynor, Matthew J. and Wilkinson, Simon C. and Williams, Faith M.},
abstractNote = {Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.019},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 2,
volume = 218,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Excess molar volumes (V{sub m}{sup E}) and viscosities ({eta}) have been determined as a function of mole fraction for binary liquid mixtures of water with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxyethanol), CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}OH, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol), CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}OH, and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol), CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}OH, at 308.15 K. Densities ({rho}) of the mixtures have been calculated from the results. The excess volumes are negative over the entire composition range for the systems studied. The results for V{sub m}{sup E} and {eta} are discussed in terms ofmore » interactions of water with an amphiphilic molecule.« less
  • The viscosity in binary liquid mixtures of water with ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (1,2-dimethoxyethane), diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether), triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (1,2-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)ethane), and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxapentadecane), have been determined at 298.15 K over the whole range of mixture compositions. The viscosity data have been analyzed by using the viscosity equations of McAllister and Heric. The values of the quantity {Delta}{eta}, which refer to the derivations of the experimental values of the dynamic viscosities of the mixtures from the mole fraction mixture law values, have been found to be positive for all the mixtures. The deviationsmore » in viscosity data {Delta}{eta} have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial relation to estimate the binary coefficients. Also, the values of the parameter d{sub 12} have been calculated from the equation ln {eta} = x{sub 1} ln {eta}{sub 1} = x{sub 2} ln {eta}{sub 2} + x{sub 1}x{sub 2}d{sub 12}, where {eta}{sub 1} and {eta}{sub 2} refer to the dynamic viscosities of the two pure liquids 1 and 2 whose mole fractions in the mixture are x{sub 1} and x{sub 2}, respectively. The values of d{sup 12} indicate the existence of a specific interaction between dissimilar molecules.« less
  • To assist evaluation of the hazards of skin contact with selected undiluted glycol ethers, their absorption across isolated human abdominal epidermis was measured in vitro. Epidermal membranes were set up in glass diffusion cells and, following an initial determination of permeability to tritiated water, excess undiluted glycol ether was applied to the outer surface for 8 hr. The appearance of glycol ether in an aqueous receptor phase bathing the underside of the epidermis was quantified by a gas chromatographic technique. A final determination of tritiated water permeability was compared with initial values to establish any irreversible alterations in epidermal barriermore » function induced by contact with the glycol ethers. 2-Methoxyethanol (EM) was most readily absorbed (mean steady rate 2.82 mg/cm/sup 2//hr), and a relatively high absorption rate (1.17 mg/cm/sup 2//hr) was also apparent for 1-methoxypropan-2-ol (PM). There was a trend of reducing absorption rate with increasing molecular weight or reducing volatility for monoethylene glycol ethers (EM, 2.82 mg/cm/sup 2//hr; 2-ethoxyethanol, EE, 0.796 mg/cm/sup 2//hr; 2-butoxyethanol EB, 0.198 mg/cm/sup 2//hr) and also within the diethylene glycol series: 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethanol (DM, 0.206 mg/cm/sup 2//hr); 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethanol (DE, 0.125 mg/cm/sup 2//hr) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol (DB, 0.035 mg/cm/sup 2//hr). The rate of absorption of 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEAc) was similar to that of the parent alcohol, EE. Absorption rates of diethylene glycol ethers were slower than their corresponding monoethylene glycol equivalents. Combination of intrinsic toxicity and ability to pass across skin contribute to assessment of hazards of contact with undiluted glycol ethers. 9 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.« less
  • Transfer of Li[sup +], Na[sup +] , K[sup +], Rb[sup +], Ca[sup 2+], Sr[sup 2+], and Ba[sup 2+] ions facilitated by hexa- and octaethylene glycol monododecyl ethers (C12E6 and C12E8) has been studied at the nitrobenzene (NB)- water (W) interface using cyclic voltammetry. When the concentration of C12En (n = 6 or 8) in NB is higher than 1 mM, cyclic voltammograms for all these ions show reversible transfer of ions facilitated by C12En. The current is mainly carried by 1:1 (metal:ligand) complex and is limited by the diffusion of C12En in NB. When the concentration of C12En in NBmore » is lowered to the submillimolar range, the contribution of the adsorption of C12En to the current becomes significant. In the transfer of hydrophilic ions, e.g., Li [sup +] and Ca[sup 2+], the contribution of the complex with 1:2 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry to the measured current becomes nonnegligible. This 1:2 complex formation becomes pronounced with increasing ligand concentration.« less
  • Self-diffusion coefficients, D, of Na/sup +/ (NaCl, m = 0.1) were measured by the radiometric porous frit method for water mixtures of polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight ca. 20,000) at 25/sup 0/C. As the organic fraction of the solution increases, D decreases from 1.28 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2//s in water to 0.15 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2//s in 48 vol percent PEG. The diffusion coefficient--viscosity product increases rapidly with increasing fraction of organic component in solution. At an organic volume fraction of 0.48, the relative diffusion coefficient--viscosity product is over 700 times larger than in water. A plot ofmore » the logarithm of the relative diffusion coefficients against logarithm of the volume fraction of water is essentially linear, with slope 3.3. This large slope implies that for self-diffusion of small ions the PEG solution behaves like an assembly of oblate ellipsoids of revolution with an axial ratio substantially different from unity.« less