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Title: Electroluminescence materials ZnS:Cu,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Mn,Cl studied by EXAFS spectroscopy

Abstract

When a high-frequency ac voltage is applied to ZnS:Cu,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Mn,Cl devices, optical fluorescence, known as ac electroluminescence (EL), is observed; it depends on both the Cu (Mn) and Cl dopants. The local structure of these compounds was studied using the extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique to understand the role of Cu and Mn. Data were taken at the K edge of Zn, Cu, and Mn, for powder material and for both new and aged (degraded, low EL) devices. The EXAFS data show that Mn substitutes for Zn in the ZnS lattice, whereas Cu has a different local structure (it cannot be fit well with the ZnS structure). For all the Cu edge data, the first shell of neighbors is best fit using an experimental standard obtained from CuS, suggesting that almost all of the Cu resides in tiny CuS-like clusters. Since these clusters are dominant in both the new and degraded samples and do not change with aging, they likely do not contribute directly to the luminescence. Consequently, our results indicate that a very small fraction of the Cu atoms are EL-active; this is consistent with previous models for which the emission centers involve isolated Cu defects or Cumore » pairs. Thus, a possible explanation for the rapid degradation of a device is that the isolated Cu ions electrodiffuse to the CuS-like clusters, at which point they no longer produce EL. Based on these results, a low-temperature annealing experiment (200C) was carried out that shows that a degraded device can be nearly completely rejuvenated by heating.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Physics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20976700
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.075301; (c) 2007 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ABSORPTION; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; AGING; ANNEALING; CHLORINE; COPPER; COPPER IONS; COPPER SULFIDES; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTROLUMINESCENCE; FINE STRUCTURE; FLUORESCENCE; MANGANESE; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0065-0273 K; X RADIATION; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY; ZINC SULFIDES

Citation Formats

Warkentin, M., Bridges, F., Carter, S. A., and Anderson, M. Electroluminescence materials ZnS:Cu,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Mn,Cl studied by EXAFS spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVB.75.075301.
Warkentin, M., Bridges, F., Carter, S. A., & Anderson, M. Electroluminescence materials ZnS:Cu,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Mn,Cl studied by EXAFS spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVB.75.075301.
Warkentin, M., Bridges, F., Carter, S. A., and Anderson, M. Thu . "Electroluminescence materials ZnS:Cu,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Mn,Cl studied by EXAFS spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVB.75.075301.
@article{osti_20976700,
title = {Electroluminescence materials ZnS:Cu,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Mn,Cl studied by EXAFS spectroscopy},
author = {Warkentin, M. and Bridges, F. and Carter, S. A. and Anderson, M.},
abstractNote = {When a high-frequency ac voltage is applied to ZnS:Cu,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Mn,Cl devices, optical fluorescence, known as ac electroluminescence (EL), is observed; it depends on both the Cu (Mn) and Cl dopants. The local structure of these compounds was studied using the extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique to understand the role of Cu and Mn. Data were taken at the K edge of Zn, Cu, and Mn, for powder material and for both new and aged (degraded, low EL) devices. The EXAFS data show that Mn substitutes for Zn in the ZnS lattice, whereas Cu has a different local structure (it cannot be fit well with the ZnS structure). For all the Cu edge data, the first shell of neighbors is best fit using an experimental standard obtained from CuS, suggesting that almost all of the Cu resides in tiny CuS-like clusters. Since these clusters are dominant in both the new and degraded samples and do not change with aging, they likely do not contribute directly to the luminescence. Consequently, our results indicate that a very small fraction of the Cu atoms are EL-active; this is consistent with previous models for which the emission centers involve isolated Cu defects or Cu pairs. Thus, a possible explanation for the rapid degradation of a device is that the isolated Cu ions electrodiffuse to the CuS-like clusters, at which point they no longer produce EL. Based on these results, a low-temperature annealing experiment (200C) was carried out that shows that a degraded device can be nearly completely rejuvenated by heating.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVB.75.075301},
journal = {Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
number = 7,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • When a high-frequency ac voltage is applied to ZnS:Cu,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Mn,Cl devices, optical fluorescence, known as ac electroluminescence (EL), is observed; it depends on both the Cu (Mn) and Cl dopants. The local structure of these compounds was studied using the extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique to understand the role of Cu and Mn. Data were taken at the K edge of Zn, Cu, and Mn, for powder material and for both new and aged (degraded, low EL) devices. The EXAFS data show that Mn substitutes for Zn in the ZnS lattice, whereas Cu has a different local structure (itmore » cannot be fit well with the ZnS structure). For all the Cu edge data, the first shell of neighbors is best fit using an experimental standard obtained from CuS, suggesting that almost all of the Cu resides in tiny CuS-like clusters. Since these clusters are dominant in both the new and degraded samples and do not change with aging, they likely do not contribute directly to the luminescence. Consequently, our results indicate that a very small fraction of the Cu atoms are EL-active; this is consistent with previous models for which the emission centers involve isolated Cu defects or Cu pairs. Thus, a possible explanation for the rapid degradation of a device is that the isolated Cu ions electrodiffuse to the CuS-like clusters, at which point they no longer produce EL. Based on these results, a low-temperature annealing experiment (200C) was carried out that shows that a degraded device can be nearly completely rejuvenated by heating.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Background: The 31S(p,gamma) 32Cl reaction becomes important for sulfur production in novae if the P-31(p, alpha)Si-28 reaction rate is somewhat greater than currently accepted. The rate of the S-31(p,gamma) Cl-32 reaction is uncertain, primarily due to the properties of resonances at E-c.m. = 156 and 549 keV. Purpose: We precisely determined the excitation energies of states in Cl-32 through high-resolution. spectroscopy including the two states most important for the S-31(p,gamma) Cl-32 reaction at nova temperatures. Method: Excited states in Cl-32 were populated using the B-10(Mg-24, 2n) Cl-32 reaction with a Mg-24 beam from the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory.more » The reaction channel of interest was selected using recoils in the Fragment Mass Analyzer, and we determined precise level energies by detecting. rays with Gammasphere. Results: We also observed. rays from the decay of six excited states in Cl-32. The excitation energies for two unbound levels at E-x = 1738.1 (6) keV and 2130.5 (10) keV were determined and found to be in agreement with a previous high-precision measurement of the S-32(He-3, t) Cl-32 reaction [1]. Conclusions: An updated 31S(p,gamma) Cl-32 reaction rate is presented. With the excitation energies of important levels firmly established, the dominant uncertainty in the reaction rate at nova temperatures is due to the strength of the resonance corresponding to the 2131-keV state in Cl-32.« less