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Title: Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums

Abstract

The goal of demonstrating ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2003)] has motivated a revisit of double-shell (DS) targets as a complementary path to the cryogenic baseline approach. Expected benefits of DS ignition targets include noncryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel preparation, minimal hohlraum-plasma-mediated laser backscatter, low threshold-ignition temperatures ({approx_equal}4 keV) for relaxed hohlraum x-ray flux asymmetry tolerances, and minimal (two-) shock timing requirements. On the other hand, DS ignition presents several formidable challenges, encompassing room-temperature containment of high-pressure DT ({approx_equal}790 atm) in the inner shell, strict concentricity requirements on the two shells (<3 {mu}m), development of nanoporous (<100 nm cell size) low-density (<100 mg/cc) metallic foams for structural support of the inner shell and hydrodynamic instability mitigation, and effective control of hydrodynamic instabilities on the high-Atwood-number interface between the DT fuel and the high-Z inner shell. Recent progress in DS ignition designs and required materials science advances at the nanoscale are described herein. Two new ignition designs that use rugby-shaped vacuum hohlraums are presented that utilize either 1 or 2 MJ of laser energy at 3{omega}. The capability of the National Ignition Facility to generate the requested 2 MJ reverse-ramp pulse shapemore » for DS ignition is expected to be comparable to the planned high-contrast ({approx_equal}100) pulse shape at 1.8 MJ for the baseline cryogenic target. Nanocrystalline, high-strength, Au-Cu alloy inner shells are under development using electrochemical deposition over a glass mandrel, exhibiting tensile strengths well in excess of 790 atm. Novel, low-density (85 mg/cc) copper foams have recently been demonstrated using 10 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} nanoporous aerogels with suspended Cu particles. A prototype demonstration of an ignition DS is planned for 2008, incorporating the needed novel nanomaterials science developments and the required fabrication tolerances for a realistic ignition attempt after 2010.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20976616
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2716406; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; COPPER; DENSITY; DEUTERIUM; ELECTRODEPOSITION; FOAMS; GELS; KEV RANGE 01-10; LASERS; NANOSTRUCTURES; PRESSURE RANGE MEGA PA 10-100; PULSE SHAPERS; SHELLS; SILICON OXIDES; TENSILE PROPERTIES; TRITIUM; US NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Amendt, Peter, Cerjan, C., Hamza, A., Hinkel, D. E., Milovich, J. L., and Robey, H. F. Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2716406.
Amendt, Peter, Cerjan, C., Hamza, A., Hinkel, D. E., Milovich, J. L., & Robey, H. F. Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2716406.
Amendt, Peter, Cerjan, C., Hamza, A., Hinkel, D. E., Milovich, J. L., and Robey, H. F. Tue . "Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2716406.
@article{osti_20976616,
title = {Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums},
author = {Amendt, Peter and Cerjan, C. and Hamza, A. and Hinkel, D. E. and Milovich, J. L. and Robey, H. F.},
abstractNote = {The goal of demonstrating ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2003)] has motivated a revisit of double-shell (DS) targets as a complementary path to the cryogenic baseline approach. Expected benefits of DS ignition targets include noncryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel preparation, minimal hohlraum-plasma-mediated laser backscatter, low threshold-ignition temperatures ({approx_equal}4 keV) for relaxed hohlraum x-ray flux asymmetry tolerances, and minimal (two-) shock timing requirements. On the other hand, DS ignition presents several formidable challenges, encompassing room-temperature containment of high-pressure DT ({approx_equal}790 atm) in the inner shell, strict concentricity requirements on the two shells (<3 {mu}m), development of nanoporous (<100 nm cell size) low-density (<100 mg/cc) metallic foams for structural support of the inner shell and hydrodynamic instability mitigation, and effective control of hydrodynamic instabilities on the high-Atwood-number interface between the DT fuel and the high-Z inner shell. Recent progress in DS ignition designs and required materials science advances at the nanoscale are described herein. Two new ignition designs that use rugby-shaped vacuum hohlraums are presented that utilize either 1 or 2 MJ of laser energy at 3{omega}. The capability of the National Ignition Facility to generate the requested 2 MJ reverse-ramp pulse shape for DS ignition is expected to be comparable to the planned high-contrast ({approx_equal}100) pulse shape at 1.8 MJ for the baseline cryogenic target. Nanocrystalline, high-strength, Au-Cu alloy inner shells are under development using electrochemical deposition over a glass mandrel, exhibiting tensile strengths well in excess of 790 atm. Novel, low-density (85 mg/cc) copper foams have recently been demonstrated using 10 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} nanoporous aerogels with suspended Cu particles. A prototype demonstration of an ignition DS is planned for 2008, incorporating the needed novel nanomaterials science developments and the required fabrication tolerances for a realistic ignition attempt after 2010.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2716406},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 5,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The goal of demonstrating ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has motivated a revisit of double-shell (DS) targets as a complementary path to the cryogenic baseline approach. Expected benefits of DS ignition targets include non-cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel preparation, minimal hohlraum-plasma mediated laser backscatter, low threshold ignition temperatures ({approx} 4 keV) for relaxed hohlraum x-ray flux asymmetry tolerances, and minimal (two-) shock timing requirements. On the other hand, DS ignition presents several formidable challenges, encompassing room-temperature containment of high-pressure DT ({approx} 790 atm) in the inner shell, strict concentricity requirements on the two shells (< 3 {micro}m), development ofmore » nano-porous (<100 nm) low-density (<100 mg/cc) metallic foams for structural support of the inner shell and hydrodynamic instability mitigation, and effective control of hydrodynamic instabilities on the high-Atwood number interface between the DT fuel and the high-Z inner shell. Recent progress in DS ignition designs and required materials-science advances at the nanoscale are described herein. Two new ignition designs that use rugby-shaped vacuum hohlraums are presented which utilize either 1 MJ or 2 MJ of laser energy at 3{omega}. The capability of the NIF to generate the requested reverse-ramp pulse shape for DS ignition is expected to be comparable to the planned high-contrast ({approx}100) pulse-shape at 1.8 MJ for the baseline cryogenic target. Nano-crystalline, high-strength, Au-Cu alloy inner shells are under development using electrochemical deposition over a glass mandrel, exhibiting tensile strengths well in excess of 790 atm. Novel, low-density (85 mg/cc) copper foams have recently been demonstrated using 10 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} nano-porous aerogels with suspended Cu particles. A prototype demonstration of an ignition DS is planned for 2008, incorporating the needed novel nano-materials science developments and the required fabrication tolerances for a realistic ignition attempt after 2010.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Time resolved hard x-ray images (hv>9 keV) and time integrated hard x-ray spectra (hv=18-150 keV) from vacuum hohlraums irradiated with four 351 nm wavelength National Ignition Facility [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. J. Hogan, Fusion Technol. 26, 755 (1994)] laser beams are presented as a function of hohlraum size, laser power, and duration. The hard x-ray images and spectra provide insight into the time evolution of the hohlraum plasma filling and the production of hot electrons. The fraction of laser energy detected as hot electrons (F{sub hot}) shows a correlation with laser intensity and with an empiricalmore » hohlraum plasma filling model. In addition, the significance of Au K-alpha emission and Au K-shell reabsorption observed in some of the bremsstrahlung dominated spectra is discussed.« less
  • The first 96 and 192 beam vacuum hohlraum have been fielded at the National Ignition Facility demonstrating radiation temperatures up to 340 eV and fluxes of 20 TW/sr representing a 20 times flux increase over NOVA/Omega scale hohlraums. The vacuum hohlraums were irradiated with 2 ns square pulses with energies between 150 - 635 kJ. They produced nearly Planckian spectra with about 30 {+-} 10% more flux than predicted by the current radiation hydrodynamic simulations after careful verification of all component calibrations (which included an {approx} 10% downward correction to Center X-Ray Optics opacities just below the Cu L edgemore » at 50-750 eV), cable deconvolution, and analysis software routines. To corroborate these results, first a half hohlraum experiment was conducted using a single 2 ns-long axial quad with an irradiance of {approx} 1-2 x 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} for comparison with NIF Early Light experiments completed in 2004. Second, we completed a conversion efficiency test using a 128-beam nearly uniformly illuminated gold sphere with intensities kept low (at 1 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} over 5 ns) to avoid sensitivity to modeling uncertainties for non-local heat conduction and non-linear absorption mechanisms, to compare with similar intensity, 3 ns OMEGA sphere results. The 2004 and 2009 NIF half-hohlraums agreed to 10% in flux, but more importantly, the 2006 OMEGA Au Sphere, the 2009 NIF Au sphere and the calculated Au conversion efficiency agree to {+-}5% in flux, which is estimated to be the absolute calibration accuracy of the DANTEs. Hence we concluded the 30 {+-} 10% higher than expected radiation fluxes from the 96 and 192 beam vacuum hohlraums are attributable to differences in physics when we transitioned to large hot hohlraums. Specifically, using variants in the atomic physics models and electron heat conduction, newer simulations show that nonlocalization of energy deposition leads to less energy being stored in the coronal plasma leading to higher x-ray conversion efficiency. Since the larger volume-to-area ratio hohlraums have large coronal plasmas which scale volumetrically, the reduction in energy losses to the corona become more pronounced than for smaller NOVA/Omega scale hohlraums. The higher conversion efficiencies are also consistent with observations from other 1 ns gold sphere experiments conducted at Omega with 1 x 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} laser irradiances.« less
  • The first 96 and 192 beam vacuum Hohlraum target experiments have been fielded at the National Ignition Facility demonstrating radiation temperatures up to 340 eV and fluxes of 20 TW/sr as viewed by DANTE representing an {approx}20 times flux increase over NOVA/Omega scale Hohlraums. The vacuum Hohlraums were irradiated with 2 ns square laser pulses with energies between 150 and 635 kJ. They produced nearly Planckian spectra with about 30{+-}10% more flux than predicted by the preshot radiation hydrodynamic simulations. To validate these results, careful verification of all component calibrations, cable deconvolution, and software analysis routines has been conducted. Inmore » addition, a half Hohlraum experiment was conducted using a single 2 ns long axial quad with an irradiance of {approx}2x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} for comparison with NIF Early Light experiments completed in 2004. We have also completed a conversion efficiency test using a 128-beam nearly uniformly illuminated gold sphere with intensities kept low (at 1x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} over 5 ns) to avoid sensitivity to modeling uncertainties for nonlocal heat conduction and nonlinear absorption mechanisms, to compare with similar intensity, 3 ns OMEGA sphere results. The 2004 and 2009 NIF half-Hohlraums agreed to 10% in flux, but more importantly, the 2006 OMEGA Au Sphere, the 2009 NIF Au sphere, and the calculated Au conversion efficiency agree to {+-}5% in flux, which is estimated to be the absolute calibration accuracy of the DANTEs. Hence we conclude that the 30{+-}10% higher than expected radiation fluxes from the 96 and 192 beam vacuum Hohlraums are attributable to differences in physics of the larger Hohlraums.« less