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Title: The evolution of magnetic tower jets in the laboratory

Abstract

The evolution of laboratory produced magnetic jets is followed numerically through three-dimensional, nonideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The experiments are designed to study the interaction of a purely toroidal field with an extended plasma background medium. The system is observed to evolve into a structure consisting of an approximately cylindrical magnetic cavity with an embedded magnetically confined jet on its axis. The supersonic expansion produces a shell of swept-up shocked plasma that surrounds and partially confines the magnetic tower. Currents initially flow along the walls of the cavity and in the jet but the development of current-driven instabilities leads to the disruption of the jet and a rearrangement of the field and currents. The top of the cavity breaks up, and a well-collimated, radiatively cooled, 'clumpy' jet emerges from the system.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [3];  [2] more »;  [4];  [5] « less
  1. Laboratoire, Univers et Theories, Observatoire de Paris et UMR 8102 du CNRS, 92195 Meudon (France) and Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)
  2. (United Kingdom)
  3. (United States)
  4. (Ireland)
  5. (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20975074
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2436479; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; CAVITIES; CURRENTS; CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION; EXPANSION; INTERACTIONS; MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS; PLASMA; PLASMA CONFINEMENT; PLASMA INSTABILITY; PLASMA JETS; PLASMA SIMULATION; SHELLS; SHOCK WAVES; SUPERSONIC FLOW; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Ciardi, A., Lebedev, S. V., Frank, A., Blackman, E. G., Chittenden, J. P., Jennings, C. J., Ampleford, D. J., Bland, S. N., Bott, S. C., Rapley, J., Hall, G. N., Suzuki-Vidal, F. A., Marocchino, A., Lery, T., Stehle, C., Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2, and Laboratoire, Univers et Theories, Observatoire de Paris et UMR 8102 du CNRS, 92195 Meudon. The evolution of magnetic tower jets in the laboratory. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2436479.
Ciardi, A., Lebedev, S. V., Frank, A., Blackman, E. G., Chittenden, J. P., Jennings, C. J., Ampleford, D. J., Bland, S. N., Bott, S. C., Rapley, J., Hall, G. N., Suzuki-Vidal, F. A., Marocchino, A., Lery, T., Stehle, C., Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2, & Laboratoire, Univers et Theories, Observatoire de Paris et UMR 8102 du CNRS, 92195 Meudon. The evolution of magnetic tower jets in the laboratory. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436479.
Ciardi, A., Lebedev, S. V., Frank, A., Blackman, E. G., Chittenden, J. P., Jennings, C. J., Ampleford, D. J., Bland, S. N., Bott, S. C., Rapley, J., Hall, G. N., Suzuki-Vidal, F. A., Marocchino, A., Lery, T., Stehle, C., Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2, and Laboratoire, Univers et Theories, Observatoire de Paris et UMR 8102 du CNRS, 92195 Meudon. Tue . "The evolution of magnetic tower jets in the laboratory". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436479.
@article{osti_20975074,
title = {The evolution of magnetic tower jets in the laboratory},
author = {Ciardi, A. and Lebedev, S. V. and Frank, A. and Blackman, E. G. and Chittenden, J. P. and Jennings, C. J. and Ampleford, D. J. and Bland, S. N. and Bott, S. C. and Rapley, J. and Hall, G. N. and Suzuki-Vidal, F. A. and Marocchino, A. and Lery, T. and Stehle, C. and Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW and Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171 and Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW and Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 and Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW and Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2 and Laboratoire, Univers et Theories, Observatoire de Paris et UMR 8102 du CNRS, 92195 Meudon},
abstractNote = {The evolution of laboratory produced magnetic jets is followed numerically through three-dimensional, nonideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The experiments are designed to study the interaction of a purely toroidal field with an extended plasma background medium. The system is observed to evolve into a structure consisting of an approximately cylindrical magnetic cavity with an embedded magnetically confined jet on its axis. The supersonic expansion produces a shell of swept-up shocked plasma that surrounds and partially confines the magnetic tower. Currents initially flow along the walls of the cavity and in the jet but the development of current-driven instabilities leads to the disruption of the jet and a rearrangement of the field and currents. The top of the cavity breaks up, and a well-collimated, radiatively cooled, 'clumpy' jet emerges from the system.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2436479},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 5,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • We present results of high energy density laboratory experiments on the production of supersonic radiatively cooled plasma jets with dimensionless parameters (Mach number {approx}30, cooling parameter {approx}1 and density contrast {rho}j/{rho}a {approx}10) similar to those in YSO jets. The jets are produced using two modifications of wire array Z-pinch driven by 1MA, 250ns current pulse of MAGPIE facility at Imperial College London. In the first set of experiments the produced jets are purely hydrodynamic and are used to study deflection of the jets by the plasma cross-wind, including the structure of internal oblique shocks in the jets. In the secondmore » configuration the jets are driven by the pressure of the toroidal magnetic field and this configuration is relevant to the astrophysical models of jet launching mechanisms. Modifications of the experimental configuration allowing addition of the poloidal magnetic field and angular momentum to the jets are also discussed. We also present three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the experiments and discuss the scaling of the experiments to the astrophysical systems.« less
  • Modern theoretical models of astrophysical jets combine accretion, rotation, and magnetic fields to launch and collimate supersonic flows from a central source. Near the source, magnetic field strengths must be large enough to collimate the jet requiring that the Poynting flux exceeds the kinetic energy flux. The extent to which the Poynting flux dominates kinetic energy flux at large distances from the engine distinguishes two classes of models. In magneto-centrifugal launch models, magnetic fields dominate only at scales {approx}< 100 engine radii, after which the jets become hydrodynamically dominated (HD). By contrast, in Poynting flux dominated (PFD) magnetic tower models,more » the field dominates even out to much larger scales. To compare the large distance propagation differences of these two paradigms, we perform three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations of both HD and PFD stellar jets formed via the same energy flux. We also compare how thermal energy losses and rotation of the jet base affects the stability in these jets. For the conditions described, we show that PFD and HD exhibit observationally distinguishable features: PFD jets are lighter, slower, and less stable than HD jets. Unlike HD jets, PFD jets develop current-driven instabilities that are exacerbated as cooling and rotation increase, resulting in jets that are clumpier than those in the HD limit. Our PFD jet simulations also resemble the magnetic towers that have been recently created in laboratory astrophysical jet experiments.« less
  • Modern theoretical models of astrophysical jets combine accretion, rotation, and magnetic fields to launch and collimate supersonic flows from a central source. Near the source, magnetic field strengths must be large enough to collimate the jet requiring that the Poynting flux exceeds the kinetic energy flux. The extent to which the Poynting flux dominates kinetic energy flux at large distances from the engine distinguishes two classes of models. In magneto-centrifugal launch models, magnetic fields dominate only at scales <~ 100 engine radii, after which the jets become hydrodynamically dominated (HD). By contrast, in Poynting flux dominated (PFD) magnetic tower models,more » the field dominates even out to much larger scales. To compare the large distance propagation differences of these two paradigms, we perform three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations of both HD and PFD stellar jets formed via the same energy flux. We also compare how thermal energy losses and rotation of the jet base affects the stability in these jets. For the conditions described, we show that PFD and HD exhibit observationally distinguishable features: PFD jets are lighter, slower, and less stable than HD jets. Here, unlike HD jets, PFD jets develop current-driven instabilities that are exacerbated as cooling and rotation increase, resulting in jets that are clumpier than those in the HD limit. Our PFD jet simulations also resemble the magnetic towers that have been recently created in laboratory astrophysical jet experiments.« less