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Title: Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

Abstract

Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster (APPT) were investigated. APPTs are space propulsion options suitable for microspacecraft, and have recently attracted much attention because of their low electric power requirements and simple, compact propellant system. The plasma acceleration mechanism, however, has not been well understood. In the present work, emission spectroscopy, high speed photography, and magnetic field measurements are conducted inside the electrode channel of an APPT with rectangular geometry. The successive images of neutral particles and ions give us a comprehensive understanding of their behavior under electromagnetic acceleration. The magnetic field profile clarifies the location where the electromagnetic force takes effect. As a result, it is shown that high density, ablated neutral gas stays near the propellant surface, and only a fraction of the neutrals is converted into plasma and electromagnetically accelerated, leaving the residual neutrals behind.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
  2. (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20974898
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2710454; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ELECTRIC POWER; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY; IONS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; NEUTRAL PARTICLES; PLASMA; PLASMA ACCELERATION; PLASMA DENSITY; PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS; PLASMA GUNS; PROPULSION; THRUSTERS

Citation Formats

Koizumi, Hiroyuki, Noji, Ryosuke, Komurasaki, Kimiya, Arakawa, Yoshihiro, Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561, and Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656. Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2710454.
Koizumi, Hiroyuki, Noji, Ryosuke, Komurasaki, Kimiya, Arakawa, Yoshihiro, Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561, & Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656. Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2710454.
Koizumi, Hiroyuki, Noji, Ryosuke, Komurasaki, Kimiya, Arakawa, Yoshihiro, Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561, and Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656. Thu . "Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2710454.
@article{osti_20974898,
title = {Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster},
author = {Koizumi, Hiroyuki and Noji, Ryosuke and Komurasaki, Kimiya and Arakawa, Yoshihiro and Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 and Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656},
abstractNote = {Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster (APPT) were investigated. APPTs are space propulsion options suitable for microspacecraft, and have recently attracted much attention because of their low electric power requirements and simple, compact propellant system. The plasma acceleration mechanism, however, has not been well understood. In the present work, emission spectroscopy, high speed photography, and magnetic field measurements are conducted inside the electrode channel of an APPT with rectangular geometry. The successive images of neutral particles and ions give us a comprehensive understanding of their behavior under electromagnetic acceleration. The magnetic field profile clarifies the location where the electromagnetic force takes effect. As a result, it is shown that high density, ablated neutral gas stays near the propellant surface, and only a fraction of the neutrals is converted into plasma and electromagnetically accelerated, leaving the residual neutrals behind.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2710454},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 3,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Pulsed plasma thrusters are electric space propulsion devices which create a highly transient plasma bulk in a short-time arc discharge that is expelled to create thrust. The transitional character and the dependency on the discharge properties are yet to be elucidated. In this study, optical emission spectroscopy and Mach-Zehnder interferometry are applied to investigate the plasma properties in variation of time, space, and discharge energy. Electron temperature, electron density, and Knudsen numbers are derived for the plasma bulk and discussed. Temperatures were found to be in the order of 1.7 to 3.1 eV, whereas electron densities showed maximum values ofmore » more than 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. Both values showed strong dependency on the discharge voltage and were typically higher closer to the electrodes. Capacitance and time showed less influence. Knudsen numbers were derived to be in the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2}, thus, indicating a continuum flow behavior in the main plasma bulk.« less
  • Wall–plasma interactions excited by ablation controlled arcs are very critical physical processes in pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs). Their effects on the ionization processes of ablated vapor into discharge plasma directly determine PPT performances. To reveal the physics governing the ionization phenomena in PPT discharge, a modified model taking into account the pyrolysis effect of heated polytetrafluoroethylene propellant on the wall–plasma interactions was developed. The feasibility of the modified model was analyzed by creating a one-dimensional simulation of a rectangular ablative PPT. The wall–plasma interaction results based on this modified model were found to be more realistic than for the unmodifiedmore » model; this reflects the dynamic changes of the inflow parameters during discharge in our model. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial variations of the different plasma species in the discharge chamber were numerically studied. The numerical studies showed that polytetrafluoroethylene plasma was mainly composed of monovalent ions; carbon and fluorine ions were concentrated in the upstream and downstream discharge chamber, respectively. The results based on this modified model were in good agreement with the experimental formation times of the various plasma species. A large number of short-lived and highly ionized carbon and fluorine species (divalent and trivalent ions) were created during initial discharge. These highly ionized species reached their peak density earlier than the singly ionized species.« less
  • Electron density was measured by Stark broadening in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster. The asymmetrical deconvolution is used to obtain Stark broadening. The result shows that the electron density in the discharge channel is 2.534x10{sup 22} m{sup -3} when the discharge energy is 5 J and the measured electron temperature is 18 000 K, and it is in excellent agreement with other experimental and theoretical data. The electron density in the discharge channel increases very minimally with increasing discharge energy.
  • Breakdown in ablative pulsed plasma thrusters (APPTs) must be studied in order to design new types of APPTs and measure particular parameters. In this paper, we studied a parallel-plate ablative pulsed plasma thruster that used a coaxial semiconductor spark plug. By operating the APPT about 500 times with various capacitor voltages and electrode gaps, we measured and analyzed the voltage of the spark plug, the voltage between the electrodes, and the discharge current. These experiments revealed a time delay (∼1–10 μs) between spark plug ignition and capacitor discharge, which may affect the performance of high-pulsing-rate (>10 kHz) and double-discharge APPTs, and themore » measurements of some of the APPT parameters. The delay time decreased as the capacitor voltage increased, and it increased with an increasing electrode gap and increasing number of ignitions. We explain our results through a simple theoretical analysis.« less
  • A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted. Laser-ablation plasma in the thruster was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thrusters was evaluated by measuring the ablated mass per pulse and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulses up to 7,200 s were obtained at charge energies of 8.6 J. Moreover, from the Faraday cup measurement, it was confirmed that the speed of ions was accelerated with addition of electric energy.