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Title: Temperature sensitivity of Cu K{sub {alpha}} imaging efficiency using a spherical Bragg reflecting crystal

Abstract

The interaction of a 75 J 10 ps, high intensity laser beam with low-mass, solid Cu targets is investigated. Two instruments were fielded as diagnostics of Cu K-shell emission from the targets: a single photon counting spectrometer provided the absolute K{sub {alpha}} yield [C. Stoeckl et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3705 (2004)] and a spherically bent Bragg crystal recorded 2D monochromatic images with a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m [J. A. Koch et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2130 (2003)]. Due to the shifting and broadening of the K{sub {alpha}} spectral lines with increasing temperature, there is a temperature dependence of the crystal collection efficiency. This affects measurements of the spatial pattern of electron transport, and it provides a temperature diagnostic when cross calibrated against the single photon counting spectrometer. The experimental data showing changing collection efficiency are presented. The results are discussed in light of modeling of the temperature-dependent spectrum of Cu K-shell emission.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [3];  [2]; ; ;  [4]; ;  [1];  [2];  [5];  [6] more »; ;  [7];  [8] « less
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
  4. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)
  5. Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic)
  6. General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)
  7. Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
  8. Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20974845
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2431632; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; COPPER; CRYSTALS; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRON TEMPERATURE; ELECTRONS; EMISSION; ION TEMPERATURE; K SHELL; LASERS; LINE BROADENING; MONOCHROMATIC RADIATION; PHOTONS; PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS; SENSITIVITY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; SPECTROMETERS; SPHERICAL CONFIGURATION; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE

Citation Formats

Akli, K. U., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, Key, M. H., Chung, H. K., Hansen, S. B., Chen, M. H., Hatchett, S., Izumi, N., Mackinnon, A. J., Snavely, R., Freeman, R. R., Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, Gregori, G., Norreys, P., Murphy, C. D., Hey, D., King, J., Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, Kuba, J., Stephens, R. B., Stoeckel, C., Theobald, W., and Zhang, B.. Temperature sensitivity of Cu K{sub {alpha}} imaging efficiency using a spherical Bragg reflecting crystal. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2431632.
Akli, K. U., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, Key, M. H., Chung, H. K., Hansen, S. B., Chen, M. H., Hatchett, S., Izumi, N., Mackinnon, A. J., Snavely, R., Freeman, R. R., Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, Gregori, G., Norreys, P., Murphy, C. D., Hey, D., King, J., Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, Kuba, J., Stephens, R. B., Stoeckel, C., Theobald, W., & Zhang, B.. Temperature sensitivity of Cu K{sub {alpha}} imaging efficiency using a spherical Bragg reflecting crystal. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2431632.
Akli, K. U., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, Key, M. H., Chung, H. K., Hansen, S. B., Chen, M. H., Hatchett, S., Izumi, N., Mackinnon, A. J., Snavely, R., Freeman, R. R., Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, Gregori, G., Norreys, P., Murphy, C. D., Hey, D., King, J., Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, Kuba, J., Stephens, R. B., Stoeckel, C., Theobald, W., and Zhang, B.. Thu . "Temperature sensitivity of Cu K{sub {alpha}} imaging efficiency using a spherical Bragg reflecting crystal". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2431632.
@article{osti_20974845,
title = {Temperature sensitivity of Cu K{sub {alpha}} imaging efficiency using a spherical Bragg reflecting crystal},
author = {Akli, K. U. and Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 and Key, M. H. and Chung, H. K. and Hansen, S. B. and Chen, M. H. and Hatchett, S. and Izumi, N. and Mackinnon, A. J. and Snavely, R. and Freeman, R. R. and Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 and Gregori, G. and Norreys, P. and Murphy, C. D. and Hey, D. and King, J. and Department of Applied Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 and Kuba, J. and Stephens, R. B. and Stoeckel, C. and Theobald, W. and Zhang, B.},
abstractNote = {The interaction of a 75 J 10 ps, high intensity laser beam with low-mass, solid Cu targets is investigated. Two instruments were fielded as diagnostics of Cu K-shell emission from the targets: a single photon counting spectrometer provided the absolute K{sub {alpha}} yield [C. Stoeckl et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3705 (2004)] and a spherically bent Bragg crystal recorded 2D monochromatic images with a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m [J. A. Koch et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2130 (2003)]. Due to the shifting and broadening of the K{sub {alpha}} spectral lines with increasing temperature, there is a temperature dependence of the crystal collection efficiency. This affects measurements of the spatial pattern of electron transport, and it provides a temperature diagnostic when cross calibrated against the single photon counting spectrometer. The experimental data showing changing collection efficiency are presented. The results are discussed in light of modeling of the temperature-dependent spectrum of Cu K-shell emission.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2431632},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 2,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • The Vulcan laser facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory was used to study the interaction of a 75 J 10 ps, high intensity laser beam with low-mass solid, Cu targets. Two instruments were fielded as diagnostics of the Cu K-shell emission from the targets: A single photon counting CCD spectrometer provided the absolute K{sub {alpha}} yield and a spherically bent Bragg crystal recorded 2D monochromatic images with a spatial resolution of 10 {micro}m. Due to the shifting and broadening of the K{sub {alpha}} spectral lines with increasing temperature, there is a temperature dependence of the crystal collection efficiency. This providesmore » a temperature diagnostic when cross calibrated against a single hit CCD spectrometer, and it affects measurements of the spatial pattern of electron transport. The experimental data showing changing collection efficiency are presented. The results are discussed in light of modeling of the temperature-dependent spectrum of Cu K-shell emission.« less
  • We show that short pulse laser generated Ti K{alpha} radiation can be used effectively as a backlighter for radiographic imaging. This method of x-ray radiography features high temporal and spatial resolution, high signal to noise ratio, and monochromatic imaging. We present here the Ti K{alpha} backlit images of six-beam driven spherical implosions of thin-walled 500-{mu}m Cu-doped deuterated plastic (CD) shells and of similar implosions with an included hollow gold cone. These radiographic results were used to define conditions for the diagnosis of fast ignition relevant electron transport within imploded Cu-doped coned CD shells.
  • The new compounds K{sub 3}V{sub 0.32}Ta{sub 0.68}S{sub 4} (1), K{sub 6}Nb{sub 1.07}Ta{sub 2.93}S{sub 22} (2), K{sub 6}Nb{sub 2.97}Ta{sub 1.03}S{sub 25} (3), K{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}Nb{sub 0.98}Ta{sub 1.02}S{sub 8} (4), and KCu{sub 2}Nb{sub 0.53}Ta{sub 0.47}S{sub 4} (5) have been synthesized by the reactive flux method. Their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal data: 1: space group Pnma, a=9.2354(7), b=10.6920(6), c=9.2991(5) A, Z=4; 2: space group P2{sub 1}/c, a=7.6412(4), b=8.7572(5), c=24.5772(14) A, {beta}=98.559(6){sup o}, Z=2; 3: space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=15.7147(10), b=12.9840(9), c=18.2363(12) A, {beta}=104.123(8){sup o}, Z=4; 4: space group C2/c, a=23.5934(19), b=5.5661(2), c=14.2373(12) A, {beta}=120.631(9){sup o}, Z=4; 5:more » space group Ama2, a=7.4615(4), b=18.2902(16), c=5.5320(6) A, Z=4. The structure of compound 1 is based on discrete tetrahedral MS{sub 4} (M=V/Ta) anions, which are separated by K{sup +} cations. The structure of 2 consists of K{sup +} cations and [M {sub 4}S{sub 22}]{sup 6-} (M=Nb/Ta) anions, in which two M {sub 2}S{sub 11} building blocks are linked via terminal sulfur ligands. In 3 the complex anion [M {sub 4}S{sub 25}]{sup 6-} (M=Nb/Ta) is observed which comprises two M {sub 2}S{sub 11} subunits bridged by a S{sub 3} chain. In 4 {sup 1} {sub {infinity}}[Cu{sub 3} M {sub 2}S{sub 8}]{sup 3-} (M=Nb/Ta) anionic chains are found which are formed by corner sharing of CuS{sub 4} tetrahedra and edge sharing between CuS{sub 4} and MS{sub 4} tetrahedra. The structure of 5 consists of [Cu{sub 2} MS{sub 4}]{sup -} (M=Nb/Ta) anionic layers separated by K{sup +} cations. The CuS{sub 4} and MS{sub 4} tetrahedra share edges and corners yielding layers. All compounds were characterized with Raman spectroscopy and the compound 2-5 with UV/vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: The five compounds K{sub 3}V{sub 0.32}Ta{sub 0.68}S{sub 4}, K{sub 6}Nb{sub 1.07}Ta{sub 2.93}S{sub 22}, K{sub 6}Nb{sub 2.97}Ta{sub 1.03}S{sub 25}, K{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}Nb{sub 0.98}Ta{sub 1.02}S{sub 8}, and KCu{sub 2}Nb{sub 0.53}Ta{sub 0.47}S{sub 4} have been prepared in polychalcogenide melts. The structures of these compounds base on discrete tetrahedra [MS{sub 4}]{sup 3-} (M=V/Ta), complex [M {sub 4}S{sub 22}]{sup 6-} and [M {sub 4}S{sub 25}]{sup 6-} anions comprised of two M {sub 2}S{sub 11} subunits bridged by a S{sub 2} or S{sub 3} chain, {sup 1} {sub {infinity}}[Cu{sub 3} M {sub 2}S{sub 8}]{sup 3-} anionic chains, and {sup 2} {sub {infinity}}[Cu{sub 2} MS{sub 4}]{sup -} (M=Nb/Ta) anionic layers formed by corner sharing and edge sharing between CuS{sub 4} and MS{sub 4} tetrahedra.« less
  • The crystal structure of the 93-K superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ has been elucidated from neutron powder diffraction data at 298 and 79.5 K. We confirm the basic features of the perovskite-related structure found at room temperature from earlier x-ray diffraction studies of small single crystals and find, additionally, that ordering of one of the oxygen atoms gives rise to square planar coordination for one of the copper atoms rather than disordered octahedral coordination. Within the resolution of our data there is no apparent change in structure below T/sub c/.