## General implementation of all possible positive-operator-value measurements of single-photon polarization states

Positive-operator-value measures (POVM's) are the most general class of quantum measurements. We propose a setup in which all possible POVM's of a single-photon polarization state (corresponding to all possible sets of two-dimensional Kraus operators) can be implemented easily using linear optics elements. This method makes it possible to experimentally realize any projective orthogonal, projective nonorthogonal or nonprojective sets of any number of POVM operators. Furthermore, our implementation only requires vacuum ancillas and is deterministic rather than probabilistic. Thus it realizes every POVM with the correct set of output states. We give the settings required to implement two different well-known nonorthogonalmore »