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Title: Chemosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts with defective unhooking of DNA interstrand cross-links

Abstract

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterised by defects in nucleotide excision repair, ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity and increased skin carcinoma. Compared to other complementation groups, XP-F patients show relatively mild cutaneous symptoms. DNA interstrand cross-linking agents are a highly cytotoxic class of DNA damage induced by common cancer chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin and nitrogen mustards. Although the XPF-ERCC1 structure-specific endonuclease is required for the repair of ICLs cellular sensitivity of primary human XP-F cells has not been established. In clonogenic survival assays, primary fibroblasts from XP-F patients were moderately sensitive to both UVC and HN2 compared to normal cells (2- to 3-fold and 3- to 5-fold, respectively). XP-A fibroblasts were considerably more sensitive to UVC (10- to 12-fold) but not sensitive to HN2. The sensitivity of XP-F fibroblasts to HN2 correlated with the defective incision or 'unhooking' step of ICL repair. Using the comet assay, XP-F cells exhibited only 20% residual unhooking activity over 24 h. Over the same time, normal and XP-A cells unhooked greater than 95% and 62% of ICLs, respectively. After HN2 treatment, ICL-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are detected by pulse field gel electrophoresis in dividing cells. Induction and repair of DNA DSBs was normal in XP-Fmore » fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that in primary human fibroblasts, XPF is required for the unhooking of ICLs and not for the induction or repair of ICL-associated DNA DSBs induced by HN2. In terms of cancer chemotherapy, people with mild DNA repair defects affecting ICL repair may be more prevalent in the general population than expected. Since cellular sensitivity of primary human fibroblasts usually reflects clinical sensitivity such patients with cancer would be at risk of increased toxicity.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. Cancer Research UK Drug-DNA Interactions Research Group, Department of Oncology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 91 Riding House Street, London, W1W 7BS (United Kingdom). E-mail: p.clingen@ucl.ac.uk
  2. Brunel Institute for Cancer Genetics and Pharmacogenomics, Division of Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)
  3. Cancer Research UK Drug-DNA Interactions Research Group, Department of Oncology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, 91 Riding House Street, London, W1W 7BS (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20972122
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 313; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.11.007; PII: S0014-4827(06)00481-2; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; CARCINOMAS; CHEMOTHERAPY; CONGENITAL DISEASES; DNA; EXCISION REPAIR; FIBROBLASTS; HEREDITARY DISEASES; SENSITIVITY; SKIN DISEASES; STRAND BREAKS; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

Citation Formats

Clingen, Peter H., Arlett, Colin F., Hartley, John A., and Parris, Christopher N. Chemosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts with defective unhooking of DNA interstrand cross-links. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.11.007.
Clingen, Peter H., Arlett, Colin F., Hartley, John A., & Parris, Christopher N. Chemosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts with defective unhooking of DNA interstrand cross-links. United States. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.11.007.
Clingen, Peter H., Arlett, Colin F., Hartley, John A., and Parris, Christopher N. Thu . "Chemosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts with defective unhooking of DNA interstrand cross-links". United States. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.11.007.
@article{osti_20972122,
title = {Chemosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts with defective unhooking of DNA interstrand cross-links},
author = {Clingen, Peter H. and Arlett, Colin F. and Hartley, John A. and Parris, Christopher N.},
abstractNote = {Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterised by defects in nucleotide excision repair, ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity and increased skin carcinoma. Compared to other complementation groups, XP-F patients show relatively mild cutaneous symptoms. DNA interstrand cross-linking agents are a highly cytotoxic class of DNA damage induced by common cancer chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin and nitrogen mustards. Although the XPF-ERCC1 structure-specific endonuclease is required for the repair of ICLs cellular sensitivity of primary human XP-F cells has not been established. In clonogenic survival assays, primary fibroblasts from XP-F patients were moderately sensitive to both UVC and HN2 compared to normal cells (2- to 3-fold and 3- to 5-fold, respectively). XP-A fibroblasts were considerably more sensitive to UVC (10- to 12-fold) but not sensitive to HN2. The sensitivity of XP-F fibroblasts to HN2 correlated with the defective incision or 'unhooking' step of ICL repair. Using the comet assay, XP-F cells exhibited only 20% residual unhooking activity over 24 h. Over the same time, normal and XP-A cells unhooked greater than 95% and 62% of ICLs, respectively. After HN2 treatment, ICL-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are detected by pulse field gel electrophoresis in dividing cells. Induction and repair of DNA DSBs was normal in XP-F fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that in primary human fibroblasts, XPF is required for the unhooking of ICLs and not for the induction or repair of ICL-associated DNA DSBs induced by HN2. In terms of cancer chemotherapy, people with mild DNA repair defects affecting ICL repair may be more prevalent in the general population than expected. Since cellular sensitivity of primary human fibroblasts usually reflects clinical sensitivity such patients with cancer would be at risk of increased toxicity.},
doi = {10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.11.007},
journal = {Experimental Cell Research},
number = 4,
volume = 313,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Alkaline elution is a sensitive and commonly used technique to detect cellular DNA damage in the form of DNA strand breaks and DNA cross-links. Conventional alkaline elution procedures have extensive equipment requirements and are tedious to perform. Our laboratory recently presented a rapid, simplified, and sensitive modification of the alkaline elution technique to detect carcinogen-induced DNA strand breaks. In the present study, we have further modified this technique to enable the rapid characterization of chemically induced DNA-interstrand and DNA-protein associated cross-links in cultured epithelial cells. Cells were exposed to three known DNA cross-linking agents, nitrogen mustard (HN/sub 2/), mitomycin Cmore » (MMC), or ultraviolet irradiation (UV). One hour exposures of HN/sub 2/ at 0.25, 1.0, and 4.0 microM or of MMC at 20, 40, and 60 microM produced a dose-dependent induction of total DNA cross-links by these agents. Digestion with proteinase K revealed that HN/sub 2/ and MMC induced both DNA-protein cross-links and DNA-interstrand cross-links. Ultraviolet irradiation induced both DNA cross-links and DNA strand breaks, the latter of which were either protein and nonprotein associated. The results demonstrate that gravity-flow alkaline elution is a sensitive and accurate method to characterize the molecular events of DNA cross-linking. Using this procedure, elution of DNA from treated cells is completed in 1 hr, and only three fractions per sample are analyzed. This method may be useful as a rapid screening assay for genotoxicity and/or as an adjunct to other predictive assays for potential mutagenic or carcinogenic agents.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Site-specific insertion of t-(3-aminopropyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (Z3dU) and 7-deaza-dG into the Dickerson-Drew dodecamers 5'-d(C{sup 1}G{sup 2}C{sup 3}G{sup 4}A{sup 5}A{sup 6}T{sup 7}T{sup 8}C{sup 9}{und Z}{sup 10}C{sup 11}G{sup 12})-3'{center_dot}5'-d (C{sup 13}G{sup 14}C{sup 15}G{sup 16}A{sup 17}A{sup 18}T{sup 19}T{sup 20}C{sup 21}{und Z}{sup 22}C{sup 23}G{sup 24})-3' (named DDD{sup Z10}) and 5'-d(C{sup 1}G{sup 2}C{sup 3}G{sup 4}A{sup 5}A{sup 6}T{sup 7}{und X}{sup 20}C{sup 21}{und Z}{sup 22}C{sup 23}G{sup 24})-3' (named DDD{sup 2+Z10}) (X = 73dU; Z = 7-deaza-dG) suggests a mechanism underlying the formation of interstrand N+2 DNA cross-links by nitrogen mustards, e.g., melphalan and mechlorethamine. Analysis of the DDD{sup 2+Z10} duplex reveals that the tethered cations at base pairs A{supmore » 5}{center_dot}X{sup 20} and X{sup 8}{center_dot}A{sup 17} extend within the major groove in the 3'-direction, toward conserved Mg{sup 2+} binding sites located adjacent to N+2 base pairs C{sup 3}{center_dot}Z{sup 22} and Z{sup 10}{center_dot}C{sup 15}. Bridging waters located between the tethered amines and either Z{sup 10} or Z{sup 22} O{sup 6} stabilize the tethered cations and allow interactions with the N + 2 base pairs without DNA bending. Incorporation of 7-deaza-dG into the DDD{sup 2+Z10} duplex weakens but does not eliminate electrostatic interactions between tethered amines and Z{sup 10} O{sup 6} and Z{sup 22} O{sup 6}. The results suggest a mechanism by which tethered N7-dG aziridinium ions, the active species involved in formation of interstrand 5'-GNC-3' cross-links by nitrogen mustards, modify the electrostatics of the major groove and position the aziridinium ions proximate to the major groove edge of the N+2 C{center_dot}G base pair, facilitating interstrand cross-linking.« less
  • DNA glycosylases are important editing enzymes that protect genomic stability by excising chemically modified nucleobases that alter normal DNA metabolism. These enzymes have been known only to initiate base excision repair of small adducts by extrusion from the DNA helix. However, recent reports have described both vertebrate and microbial DNA glycosylases capable of unhooking highly toxic interstrand cross-links (ICLs) and bulky minor groove adducts normally recognized by Fanconi anemia and nucleotide excision repair machinery, although the mechanisms of these activities are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of Streptomyces sahachiroi AlkZ (previously Orf1), a bacterial DNA glycosylase that protectsmore » its host by excising ICLs derived from azinomycin B (AZB), a potent antimicrobial and antitumor genotoxin. AlkZ adopts a unique fold in which three tandem winged helix-turn-helix motifs scaffold a positively charged concave surface perfectly shaped for duplex DNA. Through mutational analysis, we identified two glutamine residues and a β-hairpin within this putative DNA-binding cleft that are essential for catalytic activity. Additionally, we present a molecular docking model for how this active site can unhook either or both sides of an AZB ICL, providing a basis for understanding the mechanisms of base excision repair of ICLs. Given the prevalence of this protein fold in pathogenic bacteria, this work also lays the foundation for an emerging role of DNA repair in bacteria-host pathogenesis.« less
  • A DNA restriction fragment with convergent SP6 and T7 promoters has undergone reaction with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) and was then used as a template for RNA synthesis in vitro. The T7 and SP6 RNA polymerases generate fragments of defined sizes. Analysis of the RNA fragments shows that the polymerases are mainly blocked at the level of the d(GG) and d(AG) sites and to a lesser extent at the level of the d(GC) sites. The adducts at the d(GC) sites are more resistant to cyanide ion attack than those at the major sited and are identified as interstrand cross-links. The formation ofmore » an interstrand cross-link between the N-7 atoms of two guanine residues at the d(GC) sites was further confirmed by chemical modifications.« less