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Title: Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk

Abstract

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalitiesmore » on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [1];  [1]
  1. Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)
  2. Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). E-mail: iracema@ftc.br
  3. (Brazil)
  4. BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20972068
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015; PII: S0013-9351(06)00149-6; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AROMATICS; BIOASSAY; EMBRYOS; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; GASOLINE; HEALTH HAZARDS; HYDROCARBONS; NAPHTHA; OIL SPILLS; OYSTERS; PETROCHEMICALS; PETROLEUM; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Paixao, J.F., Nascimento, I.A., Pereira, S.A., Leite, M.B.L., Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia, Carvalho, G.C., BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia, Silveira, J.S.C., Reboucas, M., Matias, G.R.A., and Rodrigues, I.L.P.. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015.
Paixao, J.F., Nascimento, I.A., Pereira, S.A., Leite, M.B.L., Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia, Carvalho, G.C., BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia, Silveira, J.S.C., Reboucas, M., Matias, G.R.A., & Rodrigues, I.L.P.. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk. United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015.
Paixao, J.F., Nascimento, I.A., Pereira, S.A., Leite, M.B.L., Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia, Carvalho, G.C., BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia, Silveira, J.S.C., Reboucas, M., Matias, G.R.A., and Rodrigues, I.L.P.. Thu . "Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk". United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015.
@article{osti_20972068,
title = {Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk},
author = {Paixao, J.F. and Nascimento, I.A. and Pereira, S.A. and Leite, M.B.L. and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia and Carvalho, G.C. and BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia and Silveira, J.S.C. and Reboucas, M. and Matias, G.R.A. and Rodrigues, I.L.P.},
abstractNote = {Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.},
doi = {10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015},
journal = {Environmental Research},
number = 3,
volume = 103,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}