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Title: Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk

Abstract

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalitiesmore » on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [1];  [1]
  1. Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)
  2. Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). E-mail: iracema@ftc.br
  3. (Brazil)
  4. BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20972068
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015; PII: S0013-9351(06)00149-6; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AROMATICS; BIOASSAY; EMBRYOS; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; GASOLINE; HEALTH HAZARDS; HYDROCARBONS; NAPHTHA; OIL SPILLS; OYSTERS; PETROCHEMICALS; PETROLEUM; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Paixao, J.F., Nascimento, I.A., Pereira, S.A., Leite, M.B.L., Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia, Carvalho, G.C., BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia, Silveira, J.S.C., Reboucas, M., Matias, G.R.A., and Rodrigues, I.L.P.. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015.
Paixao, J.F., Nascimento, I.A., Pereira, S.A., Leite, M.B.L., Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia, Carvalho, G.C., BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia, Silveira, J.S.C., Reboucas, M., Matias, G.R.A., & Rodrigues, I.L.P.. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk. United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015.
Paixao, J.F., Nascimento, I.A., Pereira, S.A., Leite, M.B.L., Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia, Carvalho, G.C., BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia, Silveira, J.S.C., Reboucas, M., Matias, G.R.A., and Rodrigues, I.L.P.. Thu . "Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk". United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015.
@article{osti_20972068,
title = {Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk},
author = {Paixao, J.F. and Nascimento, I.A. and Pereira, S.A. and Leite, M.B.L. and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia and Carvalho, G.C. and BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia and Silveira, J.S.C. and Reboucas, M. and Matias, G.R.A. and Rodrigues, I.L.P.},
abstractNote = {Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.},
doi = {10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.015},
journal = {Environmental Research},
number = 3,
volume = 103,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The effects of temperature and duration of storage on the toxicity of estuarine sediments were investigated with the Crassostrea gigas oyster embryo bioassay. Sediments ranging from unpolluted (controls) to extremely polluted with heavy metals (>100 ppm Hg, Cu, Zn, and Pb) and total hydrocarbons (>1,000 ppm) were collected from sites in southwest France and northern Spain, Control sediments were toxic only at the highest concentrations tested and after freezing in liquid nitrogen ({minus}196 C). Polluted sediments significantly reduced the success of oyster embryogenesis. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of storage temperature on toxicity increased with the prolongation ofmore » storage. Prolonged storage of fresh (4 C) sediments resulted in a loss of toxicity, which was more rapid in the less-polluted sediments. Deep-frozen sediments ({minus}196 C) were highly toxic regardless of origin and storage time, and because deep-freezing causes spurious toxicity in the control samples, it cannot be recommended for toxicological studies. In the context of the assessment of sediment toxicity by embryo-larval bioassays, fresh (4 C) storage is recommended when sediments need to be stored for no longer than a few days. The advisable duration of fresh storage to avoid false-negative results is directly related to the degree of toxicity. Should the sediments require prolonged storage, freezing at {minus}20 C appears to be the best choice.« less
  • A laboratory study was designed to determine the lethal concentration of Cu to the Pacific oyster. Oysters 18 to 24 months old and sexually mature were held in running unfiltered sea water (33 percent), pH8, at 12 to 15/sup 0/C for one week prior to testing. The oysters were exposed to Cu concentrations of 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 ppM for three separate 96-hr experiments to determine the median tolerance limits (TL/sub m/), the concentration at which 50 percent of an experimental population are dead after 96 hours for this study. The 96-hr TL/sub m/ was estimated to bemore » 0.56 ppM. This value is much higher than the concentrations from 0.001 to 0.010 ppM found in the natural environment. Because adult oysters were used in this study, concentrations lower than 0.56 ppM may be presumed to be lethal to the more susceptible egg and larval stages. Further studies using lower salinities and pH and higher temperatures may have elicited a lower TL/sub m/ value than 0.56 ppM.« less
  • In this paper the determination of metal-binding proteins (MBP) in the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is reported. The objectives of this study were to employ a simple, cost-effective method for quantifying MBP and to assess this parameter for possible use as an indicator of identifiable sources of metal input to biological systems. Abnormally high quantities of zinc had been found previously in C. gigas growing in waters adjacent to the Kraft pump mill at Crofton, British Columbia. From 1971 to 1973 oysters near the effluent outfalls were found to have body-burden zinc six to ten times the zinc concentrations foundmore » in reference specimens. Zinc dithionite was used in the pulping process at the mill until 1973. Subsequent to a change to sodium dithionite, concentrations of zinc in oysters decreased steadily. A second potential source of contamination is sited directly south of the pulp mill. In this case, leaching of copper and zinc from smelter slag into Osborn Bay has been identified.« less