skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

Abstract

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents.more » Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3]
  1. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)
  2. Department of Epidemiology, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata 867-0008 (Japan)
  3. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan). E-mail: winestem@med.akita-u.ac.jp
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20972063
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.009; PII: S0013-9351(06)00145-9; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CADMIUM; CREATININE; HAIR; INTAKE; KIDNEYS; MERCURY; MERCURY ALLOYS; METHYLMERCURY; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; SEAFOOD; URINE; WOMEN

Citation Formats

Ohno, Tomoko, Sakamoto, Mineshi, Kurosawa, Tomoko, Dakeishi, Miwako, Iwata, Toyoto, and Murata, Katsuyuki. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.009.
Ohno, Tomoko, Sakamoto, Mineshi, Kurosawa, Tomoko, Dakeishi, Miwako, Iwata, Toyoto, & Murata, Katsuyuki. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function. United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.009.
Ohno, Tomoko, Sakamoto, Mineshi, Kurosawa, Tomoko, Dakeishi, Miwako, Iwata, Toyoto, and Murata, Katsuyuki. Thu . "Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function". United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.009.
@article{osti_20972063,
title = {Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function},
author = {Ohno, Tomoko and Sakamoto, Mineshi and Kurosawa, Tomoko and Dakeishi, Miwako and Iwata, Toyoto and Murata, Katsuyuki},
abstractNote = {To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].},
doi = {10.1016/j.envres.2006.06.009},
journal = {Environmental Research},
number = 2,
volume = 103,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Urinary copper and zinc concentrations and their serum levels were determined in women environmentally exposed to cadmium, including itai-itai disease patients and suspected patients, for evaluating the effect of cadmium exposure on metabolism of such essential metals as copper and zinc in human beings. Copper concentrations in the urine of cadmium-exposed women, especially itai-itai patients and suspected patients, were much higher than those on nonexposed women. Zinc concentrations in the urine of cadmium-exposed women, however, were not different from those of nonexposed women. Zinc levels in the serum of the itai-itai patients were somewhat lower than those of the nonexposedmore » women. On the other hand, serum copper was almost equal in the cadmium-exposed and the nonexposed women. The correlation coefficient between ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin amounts and copper concentrations in the urine of all women examined was as high as 0.95. It is concluded that exposure to cadmium will cause an increase in the excretion of copper in urine, which is attributable to renal tubular damage due to the cadmium exposure, and that urinary zinc excretion is not increased by cadmium exposure, even in the patients who suffer from severe renal tubular damage.« less
  • Blood, hair, urine, and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Blood selenium with well-water selenium did not produce a significant correlation. Urine selenium correlation with hair selenium and urine selenium correlation with blood selenium were found to be significant. No significant correlation for hair selenium with blood selenium was found. We conclude that blood selenium alone is not an adequate monitor of selenium exposure or body burden at levels belowmore » chronic toxicity.« less
  • The decrease in mercury (Hg) levels in whole blood (B), plasma (P), erythrocytes (Ery), and urine (U) was investigated in nine men after 3 d of intense (> 100 {mu}g/m3) exposure to metallic Hg vapor. In a model in which common half-times for all subjects were used, the best fit for B-Hg was obtained with half-times of 3.1 d for a fast phase and 18 d for a slow phase. P-Hg seemed to decay more rapidly than Ery-Hg. Peak U-Hg (morning, creatinine-corrected samples) was not observed until 2-3 wk after exposure. Thereafter, the median half-time was 40 d (assuming individualmore » one-compartment models). In a model for which common half-times were used, the point estimates were 59 d for a one-compartment model and 28 and 141 for a two-compartment model. The fractions of the fast phases (i.e, two-compartment models with common half-times) were 80% for B-Hg and 84% for U-Hg.« less
  • The relationship between environmental cadmium pollution and prevalence of signs of renal disturbance was investigated. Women over 60 years of age who had spent the major part of their life in a cadmium-polluted area in Belgium (Liege, n = 60) and who had never been occupationally exposed to cadmium constituted the exposed group. Women living in two areas less polluted by cadmium (Charleroi, n = 70, and Brussels, n = 45) served as control groups. The group of aged women from the Liege area has on the average a higher cadmium body burden, as reflected by an increased excretion ofmore » cadmium in urine, than the groups of aged women in the two other areas. The parameters selected for evaluating renal function follow the same trend. Furthermore, a statistically significant correlation was found between the urinary excretion rate of cadmium and that of total protein, amino acids, ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, and albumin. The results suggest that environmental pollution by cadmium as found in some industrialized areas in Europe may exacerbate the age-related decline of renal function in population groups nonoccupationally exposed to heavy metals.« less
  • Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that themore » total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 {mu}g/kg) are significantly (P < 0.05) different from the Asian (urine 24.5 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 153.9 {mu}g/kg) and White groups (urine 20.9 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 177.0 {mu}g/kg). The chemical speciation of As in the urine of the three groups was also measured using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. This showed that the proportion of the total urinary As present as dimethylarsenate (DMA) was higher for the Somali Black-African group (50%) compared to the Asians (16%) and Whites (22%). However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 {mu}g/kg), Asians (117.4 {mu}g/kg) and Whites (141.2 {mu}g/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group.« less