skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Environmental impact assessment: Retrospect and prospect

Abstract

The widespread experience of environmental impact assessment (EIA) as an anticipatory environmental management tool has generated a considerable debate over the extent to which it is achieving its purposes. This has been measured in terms of EIA 'effectiveness', especially as discussion has moved away from issues of procedural implementation, to the more substantive goals of EIA and its place within broader decision-making contexts. Empirical studies have revealed the relatively weak degree of influence on planning decisions that is being exerted by EIA, which is increasingly being attributed to its rationalist beginnings. This article seeks to direct this debate towards the founding political purposes of EIA which, it is argued, provide a neglected, yet strong, basis for EIA reform. A number of illustrative suggestions are made as a result of this redirection, to enable EIA to adopt a more determinative role in decision making and to contribute to more sustainable patterns of development planning.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Faculty of Development and Society, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom). E-mail: s.a.jay@shu.ac.uk
  2. University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom). E-mail: carys.jones@manchester.ac.uk
  3. Sefton Borough Council, Southport, Merseyside (United Kingdom). E-mail: paul.slinn@eas.sefton.gov.uk
  4. University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom). E-mail: chris.wood@manchester.ac.uk
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20972046
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Impact Assessment Review; Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.eiar.2006.12.001; PII: S0195-9255(06)00133-8; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; DECISION MAKING; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENTS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION; HEAVY METALS; PLANNING

Citation Formats

Jay, Stephen, Jones, Carys, Slinn, Paul, and Wood, Christopher. Environmental impact assessment: Retrospect and prospect. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2006.12.001.
Jay, Stephen, Jones, Carys, Slinn, Paul, & Wood, Christopher. Environmental impact assessment: Retrospect and prospect. United States. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2006.12.001.
Jay, Stephen, Jones, Carys, Slinn, Paul, and Wood, Christopher. Tue . "Environmental impact assessment: Retrospect and prospect". United States. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2006.12.001.
@article{osti_20972046,
title = {Environmental impact assessment: Retrospect and prospect},
author = {Jay, Stephen and Jones, Carys and Slinn, Paul and Wood, Christopher},
abstractNote = {The widespread experience of environmental impact assessment (EIA) as an anticipatory environmental management tool has generated a considerable debate over the extent to which it is achieving its purposes. This has been measured in terms of EIA 'effectiveness', especially as discussion has moved away from issues of procedural implementation, to the more substantive goals of EIA and its place within broader decision-making contexts. Empirical studies have revealed the relatively weak degree of influence on planning decisions that is being exerted by EIA, which is increasingly being attributed to its rationalist beginnings. This article seeks to direct this debate towards the founding political purposes of EIA which, it is argued, provide a neglected, yet strong, basis for EIA reform. A number of illustrative suggestions are made as a result of this redirection, to enable EIA to adopt a more determinative role in decision making and to contribute to more sustainable patterns of development planning.},
doi = {10.1016/j.eiar.2006.12.001},
journal = {Environmental Impact Assessment Review},
number = 4,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The following general conclusions seem consistent with the experimental facts and with the vast literature on arsenic in biology. There appears to be an arsenic cycle in nature. The complete ubiquity of As and its relation to phosphorylation suggest that it may catalyze energy-transfer reactions. Such a role would fit the capacity of certain arsonic acids to improve feed efficiency in poultry and swine, as well as the apparent alterative and tonic effects of inorganic arsenicals in man. Arsenic, a most reactive and versatile element, is associated in biology with phosphorus, selenium, and sulfur. Although arsenicals are by far themore » most potent agents to counteract Se toxicity, this effect depends on the level of each. Arsenicals differ widely in toxicity. Trivalent arsenicals, which specifically block lipoate dependent enzymes, are generally more toxic than pentavalent arsenicals. All arsenicals appear to have a measure of toxicity, at which the level of As in vital tissues reaches a critical point, i.e., about I ppM As in avian and mammalian muscle. Arsenicals are noncumulative at tolerated levels. Biological half-lives of arsenicals measured range from 36 to 60 hour. Preoccupation with hypothetical hazards from traces of arsenic in foods has often obscured attention to elements, such as cadmium and lead, which tend to accumulate and to cause chronic injury. The relation of P and of Se to dental health may involve a hitherto unsuspected value of arsenicals to maximize integrity of teeth and of bone. Arsenicals appear remarkably free from carcinogenicity. About 35 tests of arsenicals for carcinogenicity, or co-carcinogenicity, have proved negative. The inadequacy of the charge against inorganic arsenite therapy in man has been carefully traced. Arsenicals appear to have value against cancer and this deserves study. 148 references, 3 figures, 9 tables.« less
  • Transplantation of the lung in the treatment of human disease has not been as successful as the transplantation of some other organs. The history of transplantation of the lung and possible future developments in the field will be reviewed. (auth)
  • Progress in the developnment of equipment and techniques for radiotherapy during the past 30 years is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the development of megavolt gemerators. (C.H.)
  • Problems of radiation chemistry are reviewed, with emphasis on the actions of ionizing radiations on living systems. Results from past studies are summarized, and areas are delineated where future investigations are needed. The effects of radiation on aqueous systems are discussed in detail. (C.H.)