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Title: Amphoteric arsenic in GaN

Abstract

The authors have determined the lattice location of implanted arsenic in GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive {sup 73}As. They give direct evidence that As is an amphoteric impurity, thus settling the long-standing question as to whether it prefers cation or anion sites in GaN. The amphoteric character of As and the fact that As{sub Ga} 'antisites' are not minority defects provide additional aspects to be taken into account for an explanantion of the so-called miscibility gap in ternary GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} compounds, which cannot be grown with a single phase for values of x in the range of 0.1<x<0.99.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2];  [4]
  1. Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal)
  2. (Portugal)
  3. (Portugal) and CERN-PH, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
  4. (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20971903
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 18; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2736299; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ANIONS; ARSENIC; ARSENIC 73; CATIONS; CHANNELING; ELECTRON EMISSION; GALLIUM NITRIDES; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SOLUBILITY

Citation Formats

Wahl, U., Correia, J. G., Araujo, J. P., Rita, E., Soares, J. C., Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem, Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon, and CERN-PH, CH-1211 Geneva 23. Amphoteric arsenic in GaN. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2736299.
Wahl, U., Correia, J. G., Araujo, J. P., Rita, E., Soares, J. C., Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem, Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon, & CERN-PH, CH-1211 Geneva 23. Amphoteric arsenic in GaN. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2736299.
Wahl, U., Correia, J. G., Araujo, J. P., Rita, E., Soares, J. C., Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem, Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon, and CERN-PH, CH-1211 Geneva 23. Mon . "Amphoteric arsenic in GaN". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2736299.
@article{osti_20971903,
title = {Amphoteric arsenic in GaN},
author = {Wahl, U. and Correia, J. G. and Araujo, J. P. and Rita, E. and Soares, J. C. and Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon and CERN-PH, CH-1211 Geneva 23},
abstractNote = {The authors have determined the lattice location of implanted arsenic in GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive {sup 73}As. They give direct evidence that As is an amphoteric impurity, thus settling the long-standing question as to whether it prefers cation or anion sites in GaN. The amphoteric character of As and the fact that As{sub Ga} 'antisites' are not minority defects provide additional aspects to be taken into account for an explanantion of the so-called miscibility gap in ternary GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} compounds, which cannot be grown with a single phase for values of x in the range of 0.1<x<0.99.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2736299},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 18,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 30 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon Apr 30 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The 4{times}1 (respectively 1{times}1) (001) GaN surfaces obtained when molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) growth is carried out on (001) cubic SiC were exposed to an As background pressure in the MBE chamber: The reconstructions rapidly and irreversibly changed to 2{times}2 [respectively {ital c}(2{times}2)] as usually observed for GaN growth on (001) GaAs. The usual reversible 2{times}2/{ital c}(2{times}2) transitions were consequently observed when bringing the Ga flux up or down. The respective positions for the 4{times}1/1{times}1 and 2{times}2/{ital c}(2{times}2) transitions were worked out as a function of the growth parameters. These observations indicate that the 2{times}2 and {ital c}(2{times}2) GaN surface reconstructions aremore » mediated by As atoms which we tentatively assign to a surfactant effect. A simple structural model involving As dimers is proposed that accounts for Ga coverages of 0.5 and 1 monolayer for the 2{times}2 and {ital c}(2{times}2) growth regimes, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less
  • A topical antimicrobial agent (C31G), composed of amphoteric surfactants (alkyl betaines and alkyl amine oxides), had a significant and concentration dependent rate of percutaneous absorption in mice and rabbits. Percutaneous absorption studies (3 concentrations for 3 exposure periods) in mice indicated that dermal interaction resulted in nonlinear changes for rate of penetration and transport as a function of exposure and concentration. Kinetic studies of absorption and disposition after oral dosing in mice with (/sup 3/H)C31G were used to determine the body burden (0.21 g/kg of body weight) at a no effect level. Dermal penetration (P) and transport (T) resulting frommore » percutaneous exposure at variations of time and dosage concentrations were shown to fit an equation. Dermal transport in the rabbit was less than one-fourth of that in the mouse. Excretion of C31G after oral or dermal dosing was predominantly renal at higher dosage levels, whereas fecal excretion dominated at the lowest dosage levels. The half-life of (/sup 3/H)C31G in the mouse was 68 hours and 86 hours in the rabbit. Data and statistical methods allowed prediction of the effects of daily exposures.« less
  • It has been established that the frequency nu OH of an isolated OH/sup -/ ion is 150-200 cm/sup -1/ less than the values figuring in the experimental literature. The exact value nu/sub O/ OH/sup -/ was obtained recently by the spectroscopic method and is 3555, 5932 cm/sup -1/. From the viewpoint of the authors of this survey, the mechanism of increasing the frequency nu OH in crystals of basic hydroxides consists of monotonic change in the hybridization of the orbitals of the oxygen atom (including the orbitals of unshared electron pairs) under the influence of the immediate environment and themore » electrostatic field of the crystal. The frequency nu OH is determined in the first place by the type of hybridization of the orbitals of the O atom and the degree of overlap of one of these orbitals with the 1s orbital of the H atom. It has been shown that the width of the bands of stretching OH vibrations is independent of the strength of the hydrogen bond. It has been demonstrated that the width of the nu OH band of the hydroxide association ...OH...OH... is determined by the time of its residence in a state with one of the alternative directions of the dipole moment« less