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Title: Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength

Abstract

Samples of B{sub 4}C, amorphous C, chemical-vapor-deposition-diamond C, Si, and SiC were exposed to single 25 fs long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up to 2.2 J/cm{sup 2}. The samples were chosen as candidate materials for x-ray free-electron-laser optics. It was found that the threshold for surface damage is on the order of the fluence required for thermal melting. For larger fluences, the crater depths correspond to temperatures on the order of the critical temperature, suggesting that the craters are formed by two-phase vaporization.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1] more »;  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [4];  [6] « less
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
  2. (Poland)
  3. (Czech Republic)
  4. (Germany)
  5. (Sweden)
  6. (Germany) (and others)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20971885
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 17; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2734366; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AMORPHOUS STATE; BORON CARBIDES; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; CRITICAL TEMPERATURE; DAMAGE; DIAMONDS; EVAPORATION; FREE ELECTRON LASERS; MELTING; SILICON; SILICON CARBIDES; X-RAY LASERS

Citation Formats

Hau-Riege, S. P., London, R. A., Bionta, R. M., McKernan, M. A., Baker, S. L., Krzywinski, J., Sobierajski, R., Nietubyc, R., Pelka, J. B., Jurek, M., Juha, L., Chalupsky, J., Cihelka, J., Hajkova, V., Velyhan, A., Krasa, J., Kuba, J., Tiedtke, K., Toleikis, S., Tschentscher, Th., Institute of Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw, Institute of Physics AS CR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Technical University, Zikova 4, 166 36 Prague, HASYLAB/DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Centre, Box 596, Uppsala University, SE-75124 Uppsala, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg, and Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Universitaet Jena, 07793 Jena. Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2734366.
Hau-Riege, S. P., London, R. A., Bionta, R. M., McKernan, M. A., Baker, S. L., Krzywinski, J., Sobierajski, R., Nietubyc, R., Pelka, J. B., Jurek, M., Juha, L., Chalupsky, J., Cihelka, J., Hajkova, V., Velyhan, A., Krasa, J., Kuba, J., Tiedtke, K., Toleikis, S., Tschentscher, Th., Institute of Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw, Institute of Physics AS CR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Technical University, Zikova 4, 166 36 Prague, HASYLAB/DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Centre, Box 596, Uppsala University, SE-75124 Uppsala, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg, & Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Universitaet Jena, 07793 Jena. Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2734366.
Hau-Riege, S. P., London, R. A., Bionta, R. M., McKernan, M. A., Baker, S. L., Krzywinski, J., Sobierajski, R., Nietubyc, R., Pelka, J. B., Jurek, M., Juha, L., Chalupsky, J., Cihelka, J., Hajkova, V., Velyhan, A., Krasa, J., Kuba, J., Tiedtke, K., Toleikis, S., Tschentscher, Th., Institute of Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw, Institute of Physics AS CR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Technical University, Zikova 4, 166 36 Prague, HASYLAB/DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Centre, Box 596, Uppsala University, SE-75124 Uppsala, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg, and Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Universitaet Jena, 07793 Jena. Mon . "Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2734366.
@article{osti_20971885,
title = {Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength},
author = {Hau-Riege, S. P. and London, R. A. and Bionta, R. M. and McKernan, M. A. and Baker, S. L. and Krzywinski, J. and Sobierajski, R. and Nietubyc, R. and Pelka, J. B. and Jurek, M. and Juha, L. and Chalupsky, J. and Cihelka, J. and Hajkova, V. and Velyhan, A. and Krasa, J. and Kuba, J. and Tiedtke, K. and Toleikis, S. and Tschentscher, Th. and Institute of Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw and Institute of Physics AS CR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 and Czech Technical University, Zikova 4, 166 36 Prague and HASYLAB/DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg and Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Centre, Box 596, Uppsala University, SE-75124 Uppsala and Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg and Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Universitaet Jena, 07793 Jena},
abstractNote = {Samples of B{sub 4}C, amorphous C, chemical-vapor-deposition-diamond C, Si, and SiC were exposed to single 25 fs long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up to 2.2 J/cm{sup 2}. The samples were chosen as candidate materials for x-ray free-electron-laser optics. It was found that the threshold for surface damage is on the order of the fluence required for thermal melting. For larger fluences, the crater depths correspond to temperatures on the order of the critical temperature, suggesting that the craters are formed by two-phase vaporization.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2734366},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 17,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 23 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon Apr 23 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • We exposed samples of B4C, amorphous C, chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD)-diamond C, Si, and SiC to single 25 fs-long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up to 2.2 J/cm{sup 2}. The samples were chosen as candidate materials for x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) optics. We found that the threshold for surface-damage is on the order of the fluence required for thermal melting. For larger fluences, the crater depths correspond to temperatures on the order of the critical temperature, suggesting that the craters are formed by two-phase vaporization [1]. XFELs have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity ultrashort pulses ofmore » coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1 to 10 keV regime. The expected high output fluence and short pulse duration pose significant challenges to the optical components, including radiation damage. It has not been possible to obtain direct experimental verification of the expected damage thresholds since appropriate x-ray sources are not yet available. FLASH has allowed us to study the interaction of high-fluence short-duration photon pulses with materials at the shortest wavelength possible to date. With these experiments, we have come closer to the extreme conditions expected in XFEL-matter interaction scenarios than previously possible.« less
  • In this paper, we investigated whether the optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films are degraded under laser irradiation below their laser ablation threshold. While performing multi-pulse laser damage experiments on a single ITO film (4.7 ns, 1064 nm, 10 Hz), we examined the optical and electrical properties in situ. A decrease in reflectance was observed prior to laser damage initiation. However, under sub-damage threshold irradiation, conductivity and reflectance of the film were maintained without measurable degradation. This indicates that ITO films in optoelectronic devices may be operated below their lifetime laser damage threshold without noticeable performancemore » degradation.« less
  • Many scientific disciplines ranging from physics, chemistry and biology to material sciences, geophysics and medical diagnostics need a powerful X-ray source with pulse lengths in the femtosecond range. This would allow, for example, time-resolved observation of chemical reactions with atomic resolution. Such radiation of extreme intensity, and tunable over a wide range of wavelengths, can be accomplished using high-gain free-electron lasers (FEL). Here we present results of the first successful operation of an FEL at a wavelength of 32 nm, with ultra-short pulses (25 fs FWHM), a peak power at the Gigawatt level, and a high degree of transverse andmore » longitudinal coherence. The experimental data are in full agreement with theory. This is the shortest wavelength achieved with an FEL to date and an important milestone towards a user facility designed for wavelengths down to 6 nm. With a peak brilliance exceeding the state-of-the-art of synchrotron radiation sources by seven orders of magnitude, this device opens a new field of experiments, and it paves the way towards sources with even shorter wavelengths, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, USA, and the European X-ray Free Electron Laser Facility in Hamburg, Germany.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • An irreversible response of inorganic scintillators to intense soft x-ray laser radiation was investigated at the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) facility. Three ionic crystals, namely, Ce:YAG (cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), PbWO4 (lead tungstate), and ZnO (zinc oxide), were exposed to single 4.6 nm ultra-short laser pulses of variable pulse energy (up to 12 μJ) under normal incidence conditions with tight focus. Damaged areas produced with various levels of pulse fluences, were analyzed on the surface of irradiated samples using differential interference contrast (DIC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effective beam area of 22.2 ± 2.2 μm2 was determinedmore » by means of the ablation imprints method with the use of poly(methyl methacrylate) - PMMA. Applied to the three inorganic materials, this procedure gave almost the same values of an effective area. The single-shot damage threshold fluence was determined for each of these inorganic materials. The Ce:YAG sample seems to be the most radiation resistant under the given irradiation conditions, its damage threshold was determined to be as high as 660.8 ± 71.2 mJ/cm2. Contrary to that, the PbWO4 sample exhibited the lowest radiation resistance with a threshold fluence of 62.6 ± 11.9 mJ/cm2. The threshold for ZnO was found to be 167.8 ± 30.8 mJ/cm2. Both interaction and material characteristics responsible for the damage threshold difference are discussed in the article.« less