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Title: Synthesis and properties of single-crystal {beta}{sub 3}-Ni{sub 3}Si nanowires

Abstract

Single-crystal Ni{sub 3}Si nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapor transport method, using iodine as the transport reagent. Structural characterization using powder x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirms that the nanowires are the monoclinic {beta}{sub 3}-Ni{sub 3}Si phase. Four-terminal electrical measurements show that the single-crystal nanowires have a resistivity of 72 {mu}{omega} cm and are capable of supporting a high failure current density about 1.7x10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. These unique Ni{sub 3}Si nanowires are attractive nanoscale building blocks for interconnects and for fully silicided gate application in nanoelectronics.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20971884
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 17; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2732828; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; CURRENT DENSITY; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; IODINE; MONOCLINIC LATTICES; MONOCRYSTALS; NICKEL SILICIDES; POWDERS; QUANTUM WIRES; REAGENTS; SPECTROSCOPY; SYNTHESIS; VAPORS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Song Yipu, and Jin Song. Synthesis and properties of single-crystal {beta}{sub 3}-Ni{sub 3}Si nanowires. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2732828.
Song Yipu, & Jin Song. Synthesis and properties of single-crystal {beta}{sub 3}-Ni{sub 3}Si nanowires. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2732828.
Song Yipu, and Jin Song. Mon . "Synthesis and properties of single-crystal {beta}{sub 3}-Ni{sub 3}Si nanowires". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2732828.
@article{osti_20971884,
title = {Synthesis and properties of single-crystal {beta}{sub 3}-Ni{sub 3}Si nanowires},
author = {Song Yipu and Jin Song},
abstractNote = {Single-crystal Ni{sub 3}Si nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapor transport method, using iodine as the transport reagent. Structural characterization using powder x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirms that the nanowires are the monoclinic {beta}{sub 3}-Ni{sub 3}Si phase. Four-terminal electrical measurements show that the single-crystal nanowires have a resistivity of 72 {mu}{omega} cm and are capable of supporting a high failure current density about 1.7x10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. These unique Ni{sub 3}Si nanowires are attractive nanoscale building blocks for interconnects and for fully silicided gate application in nanoelectronics.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2732828},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 17,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 23 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon Apr 23 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The crystal structure of new Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type (Gd, Tb, Dy){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} (Immm, No. 71, oI10) and La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type (Dy, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} (Cmce No. 64, oC20) compounds has been established using powder X-ray diffraction studies. Magnetization measurements show that the Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at ~66 K, whereas isostructural Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at ~52 K and a field-induced metamagnetic transition at low temperatures. Neutron diffraction study shows that, in zero applied field, Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} exhibits c-axis antiferromagnetic order with propagation vectormore » K=[1/2, 0, 1/2] below its magnetic ordering temperature and Tb magnetic moment reaches a value of 8.32(5) μ{sub B} at 2 K. The La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} exhibits ferromagnetic like transition at ~42 K with coexisting antiferromagnetic interactions and field induced metamagnetic transition below ~17 K. The magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65}, Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches a maximum value of −14.3 J/kg K, −5.3 J/kg K and −10.3 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near 66 K, 52 K and 42 K, respectively. Low temperature magnetic ordering with enhanced anisotropic effects in Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} is accompanied by a positive magnetocaloric effect with isothermal magnetic entropy changes of +12.8 J/kg K and ~+9.9 J/kg K, respectively at 7 K for a field change of 50 kOe. - Graphical abstract: The (Gd, Tb, Dy){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} supplement the series of Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type rare earth compounds, whereas the (Dy, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} supplement the series of La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type rare earth compounds. The variation of alloy’s composition by ~3 at% i.e. from Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} to Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} leads to significant transformation of crystal structure of compound with different variant of distortion of Po-type rare earth sublattice, as in Gd–Co–Ga and Er–Ni–In systems: the Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type Gd{sub 2}Co{sub 2}Ga and La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type Gd{sub 2}Co{sub 2.9}Ga{sub 0.1}, and Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.78}In and Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}In. Magnetization measurements indicate collinear ferromagnetic ordering of Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and a complex antiferromagnetic ordering with low-temperature metamagnetic nature for Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} compounds. However, neutron diffraction study in zero applied field of Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} reveals c-axis pure antiferromagnetic ordering of terbium sublattice with K=[1/2, 0, 1/2] propagation vector. Magnetization measurements indicate ferromagnetic order with coexisting antiferromagnetic interactions and low-temperature metamagnetic state for La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5}. We suggest possible polymorphism in other Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type, Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type, La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type and Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type rare earth compounds with corresponding change in their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • (Gd, Tb, Dy){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} compounds crystallize in the Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type structure. • (Dy, Ho){sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} compounds crystallize in the La{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}-type structure. • Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} shows pure ferromagnetic type ordering. • Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} show mixed ferro-antiferromagnetic ordering. • Tb{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.35}Si{sub 0.65} and Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5} exhibit low-temperature metamagnetic behaviour.« less
  • The previously unknown polyoxometalate A-[beta]-Si[sub 2]W[sub 18]Ti[sub 6]O[sub 77][sup 14[minus]] has been prepared by the reaction of A-[beta]-HSiW[sub 9]O[sub 34][sup 9[minus]] with Ti(O)(C[sub 2]O[sub 4])[sub 2][sup 2[minus]] or Ti(O)SO[sub 4] under controlled pH conditions; yield optimization experiments are also reported. Isolation of this new Ti[sup IV]-substituted polyoxometalate was accomplished both as its water-soluble K[sup +] salt and as its organic-solvent-soluble Bu[sub 4]N[sup +] salt. The unambiguous characterization of A-[beta]-Si[sub 2]W[sub 18]Ti[sub 6]O[sub 77][sup 14[minus]] was accomplished by means of elemental analysis, IR and [sup 183]W NMR spectroscopy, and a single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of the Bu[sub 4]N[sup +]/H[sup +] salt,more » (Bu[sub 4]N)[sub 7]H[sub 7]Si[sub 2]W[sub 18]Ti[sub 6]O[sub 77] (Pbcm; a = 19.958(11), b = 36.880(8), c = 28.936(5) [angstrom]; Z = 4; R = 0.072 for 4614 observed independent reflections). The X-ray diffraction structural analysis reveals that the correct structural formulation is A-[beta]-(SiW[sub 9]O[sub 37])[sub 2](Ti-O-Ti)[sub 3][sup 14[minus]], a condensed aggregate of two hypothetical [open quotes]A-[beta]-SiW[sub 9](TiOH)[sub 3]O[sub 37][sup 7[minus]][close quotes] Keggin units that have lost three H[sub 2]O by forming three Ti-O-Ti bridges. The present synthesis and characterization, plus recent results from the literature, reveal that a new subclass of polyoxoanions of general formula X[sub 2]M[sub 18]M[prime][sub 6]O[sub 77][sup n[minus]] can be prepared for M[prime] in at least three different oxidation states, M[prime](III), M[prime](IV), and M[prime](V).« less
  • The novel R{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} compounds with R=Y, Sm, Tb-Tm adopt the Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type structure (ordered variant of the Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}-type one, space group Cmcm). Sm{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}, Tb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}, Ho{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} and Er{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} undergo an antiferromagnetic-type ordering and Tb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} demonstrates a field-sensitive magnetic behavior. Tm{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} is a pure paramagnet down to 5 K, whereas Y{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} demonstrates Pauli paramagnetism down to {approx}120 K. In zero applied field and between {approx}50 and {approx}15 K Tb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} shows amore » non-collinear antiferromagnetic ordering with wave vectors K{sub 0}=[0, 0, 0] and K{sub 1}=[{+-}1/3, 0, 0] and a magnetic unit cell 3a{sub Tb{sub 3Co{sub 2Ge{sub 2}}}} Multiplication-Sign b{sub Tb{sub 3Co{sub 2Ge{sub 3}}}} Multiplication-Sign c{sub Tb{sub 3Co{sub 2Ge{sub 3}}}} , whereas below {approx}15 K it exhibits a complex antiferromagnetic ordering with K{sub 0}=[0, 0, 0], K{sub 1}=[{+-}1/3, 0, 0] and K{sub 2}=[1/2, 0, 0] wave vectors and magnetic unit cell 6a{sub Tb{sub 3Co{sub 2Ge{sub 2}}}} Multiplication-Sign b{sub Tb{sub 3Co{sub 2Ge{sub 2}}}} Multiplication-Sign c{sub Tb{sub 3Co{sub 2Ge{sub 2}}}}. - Graphical abstract: The Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type {l_brace}Y, Sm, Gd-Tm{r_brace}{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (space group Cmcm) demonstrate complex field sensitive antiferromagnetic ordering. The rare earth sublattice of 4d site plays crucial role in the magnetisation of R{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} compounds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {l_brace}Y, Sm, Gd-Tm{r_brace}{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} adopts the Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type structure (space group Cmcm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They demonstrate complex field sensitive antiferromagnetic ordering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 4d site rare earth sublattice plays crucial role in the magnetism of R{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}.« less
  • We report on the synthesis and characterisation of Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C. Black single crystals of hexagonal shape were yielded from the elements at 1600 °C in h-BN crucibles welded in Ta ampoules. The crystal structure (space group R3{sup ¯}m, a=10.0793(13) Å, c=16.372(3) Å, 660 refl., 51 param., R{sub 1}(F)=0.019; wR{sub 2}(F{sup 2})=0.051) is characterized by a Kagome-net of B{sub 12} icosahedra, ethane like Si{sub 8}-units and disordered SiC-dumbbells. Vibrational spectra show typical features of boron-rich borides and Zintl phases. Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C is stable against HF/HNO{sub 3} and conc. NaOH. The micro-hardness is 17.0 GPa (Vickers) and 14.5more » GPa (Knoop), respectively. According to simple electron counting rules Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C is an electron precise compound. Band structure calculations reveal a band gap of 1.0 eV in agreement to the black colour. Interatomic distances obtained from the refinement of X-ray data are biased and falsified by the disorder of the SiC-dumbbell. The most evident structural parameters were obtained by relaxation calculation. Composition and carbon content were confirmed by WDX measurements. The small but significant carbon content is necessary by structural reasons and frequently caused by contaminations. The rare earth compounds RE{sub 3−x}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C (RE=Y, Dy–Lu) are isotypic. Single crystals were grown from a silicon melt and their structures refined. The partial occupation of the RE-sites fits to the requirements of an electron-precise composition. According to the displacement parameters a relaxation should be applied to obtain correct structural parameters. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of the new boridesilicide Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C were obtained from the elements in a Si-melt. Besides B{sub 12}-icosahedra and ethan-like Si{sub 8}-units it contains a disordered SiC-dumbbell. Correct distances were obtained by relaxation calculation based on the X-ray data. Highlights: • Black single crystals of Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C were yielded from the elements at 1600 °C. • The rare earth compounds RE{sub 3–x}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C (RE=Y, Gd–Lu) are isotypic. • Correct structural parameters result from X-ray data and subsequent relaxation.« less
  • Na{sub 3} AZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (A=Mg, Ni) phosphates were prepared at 750 deg. C by coprecipitation route. Their crystal structures have been refined at room temperature from X-ray powder diffraction data using Rietveld method. Li{sub 2.6}Na{sub 0.4}NiZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} was synthesized through ion exchange from the sodium analog. These materials belong to the Nasicon-type structure. Raman spectra of Na{sub 3} AZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (A=Mg, Ni) phosphates present broad peaks in favor of the statistical distribution in the sites around PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Diffuse reflectance spectra indicate the presence of octahedrally coordinated Ni{sup 2+} ions. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Na{submore » 3} AZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (A=Mg, Ni) phosphates. Display Omitted.« less